Administracion de Produccion y Operaciones - RICHARD j. nbafinals.info Uploaded by. Kay Ordaz Juárez. Download with Google Download with Facebook. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Administración de Producción: Sistemas y Síntesis / M.K. Starr; nbafinals.info: J. Prado R. | Traducción de: Production Management El. Libro de gran utilidad en materia de Producción y Gerencia de Operaciones.
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Monzó, J.: (), nbafinals.info (consultado Octubre de ) Chase, R.B., Aquilano, N.J., Jacobs, F.R.: Administración de Producción y. chase-administracion-de-operaciones-edsolucionario-pdf. 1. nbafinals.info; 2. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO. Palabras clave: sistemas de información contable, administración de la información, calidad de la .. información (AI) que se define como la producción, el con-.
The production process combines mass production capability with high customization. This is possible in part due to the use of flexible manufacturing. The needs and wants of the customer are considered at every step of the process. This approach can be applied in a large number of industries. However, the approach seems most appropriate in recreational consumer goods and products requiring high customization.
Many production companies have high volume and low volume lines. Many low volume production facilities could learn from the CMAX. Suppose that Rolling Stone presented the following headlines relating to OM. What particular historical events or individuals would they be referring to? This approach became know as business process reengineering BPR. It is often best not to be fastest to the market, but to be the best firm in the market as judged by the ultimate customer.
Why should a service organization worry about being world class if it does not compete outside its own national border? What impact does the Internet have on this? As the environment changes, firms can find themselves faced with competition from outside their industry or from outside their home country. Even if they do not, the principles of a world class firm can be applied to any and all manufacturing and service concerns. The Internet is global by its very nature. Retail stores must now compete with Internet stores.
Local auction houses will be in competition with Internet auction sites such as site. Virtually all organizations will be impacted in some form by the Internet. It is important that this impact be considered. What are the major priorities associated with operations strategy? How has their relationship to each other changed over the years?
The four major imperatives are cost, quality, delivery, and flexibility. For example, this meant that improving quality would result in higher cost. However, more recent thought posits that these four imperatives can improve simultaneously, and in many industries may be necessary for success.
The problem then becomes one of prioritizing and managing towards orderly improvement. Chapter 2 6 4. For each of the different priorities in question 3, describe the unique characteristics of the market niche with which it is most compatible. Cost is most compatible with products that are commodities i. Quality provides companies a means of 1 differentiating a product and winning orders or 2 competing in a market and qualifying for orders.
Quality is now pervasive among all market niches in that customers now expect high quality. Speed and reliability of delivery are essential in those markets where there is a large degree of customization. In addition, reliable delivery may be a competitive advantage in some regions of the world where delivery is difficult due to geographical or political reasons.
Flexibility is important where customers demand low volume but wide varieties of products. A few years ago the dollar showed relative weakness with respect to foreign currencies, such as the yen, mark, and pound.
This stimulated exports. Why would long-term reliance on a lower valued dollar be at best a short-term solution to the competitiveness problem? This approach is dependent on economic policies of other nations. This is a fragile dependency. A long-term approach is to increase manufacturing and service industry productivity in order to regain competitive advantage. At a national level, solutions appear to lie in reversing attitudes and strategies identified in the MIT Commission Report.
At a firm level, competitive weapons are consistent quality, high performance, dependable delivery, competitive pricing, and design flexibility. In your opinion, do business schools have competitive priorities? Their competitive priorities include: Quality of professors and curriculum—consistent quality and high performance Leader in development of new curriculum topics—design changes Academic level of student attracted—consistent quality Quantity and quality of research published—consistent quality Quality of library resources—quality What companies recruit at the school—after sales service Success rate of graduates—consistent quality Availability of financial aid—low price and after sales service Cost of tuition—low price www.
Operations Strategy and Competitiveness 7 7. The top three priorities have generally remained the same over time: Others have changed. Part of this may be explained by realizing that world class organizations have achieved excellence in these three areas and are, therefore, focusing attention on some of the more minor areas to gain competitive advantage. The changes in the minor priorities may result from recognizing opportunities or from changes in customer desires or expectations.
What is meant by the expressions order winners and order qualifiers? What was the order winner s for your last download of a product or service? Order winners are dimensions that differentiate the product or service or services of one firm from another. Order qualifiers are dimensions that are used to screen a product or service as a candidate for download. Obviously, answers will vary for the order winners from your last download. For productivity to be meaningful, it must be compared with something else.
The comparisons can be either intracompany or intercompany as in the case of benchmarking. Intercompany comparisons of single factor productivity measures can be somewhat tenuous due to differences in accounting practices especially when comparing with foreign competitors. Total factor productivity measures are somewhat more robust for comparison purposes. What are the typical performance measures for quality, speed of delivery, and flexibility? The typical performance measure for quality is percent defective or yield rate.
Other quality indicators include environmental measures of toxic waste produced, scrap, rework, and waste. Scrap is categorized as engineered or nonengineered scrap.
Speed of delivery is measured by length and variability in product lead time. Flexibility is measured by the number of products sold, and the time required to get a new product to market. What should be the criteria for management to adopt a particular performance measure?
The choice of performance measures should be consistent with the desired future position of the firm. However, as a partial measure, it may not provide all of the necessary information that is needed. Operations Strategy and Competitiveness 9 2. You would expect the capital equipment productivity measure to be higher in the U.
Therefore, this multifactor measure is a better indicator of productivity in this instance. Chapter 2 10 3. The partial measures can be used to indicate cause of the declining productivity. In this case, it is a combination of declines in both labor and raw material productivity, but an increase in the capital productivity. Further investigation should be undertaking to explain the drops in both labor and raw material productivity. An increase in the cost of both of these measures, without an accompanying increase in the selling price might explain these measures.
Operations Strategy and Competitiveness 11 4. Optimizing the Use of Resources with Linear Programming 13 1. Technical Note 2 14 2. Optimizing the Use of Resources with Linear Programming 15 3. The maximum overtime is However, only hours are available. Therefore, it is recommended that hours of overtime in the milling machine department be used. Technical Note 2 16 4.
Optimizing the Use of Resources with Linear Programming 17 5. Technical Note 2 18 b. Optimizing the Use of Resources with Linear Programming 19 7. Produced 50 barrels of Expansion Draft and 50 barrels of Burning River. Technical Note 2 20 9. She should plant acres in corn and acres in soybeans. Describe the generic product development process described in this chapter. How does this process change for "technology push" products?
There focus would be narrower because you would only look at market segments that could benefit from the application of your technology. The rest of the generic process may be somewhat less complex as well since the technology of the product current exist in your manufacturing facilities 2. Discuss the product design philosophy behind industrial design and design for manufacture and assembly. Which one do you think is more important in a customer-focused product development?
Design for manufacturability, on the other hand, makes the product design less complicated and easier to manufacture. Very often it results in less parts, smaller size, increased reliability, and lower cost. Both philosophies are equally important for a customer-focused product development. In order to attract customers, the product must be aesthetically pleasing and user-friendly industrial design. However, to sustain customer interests, it should also have a lower cost and higher reliability design for manufacturability.
What are the pros and cons of this idea? What factors must be traded off by product development before introducing a new product? The factors that need careful attention for new products are product performance, development speed, product cost, and development program expense.
Smith and Reinertsen identify six pairs of trade-offs in their book. These include all possible pairs among the four factors noted above. How does the QFD approach help?
What are some limitations of the QFD approach? QFD helps to get the voice of the customer into the design process using interfunctional teams. The limitations of QFD relate to the culture of the organization.
In the United States, we tend to be vertically oriented and try to promote breakthrough. This can work against interfunctional teamwork, which is needed for QFD success. If a breakthrough culture can be maintained with a www. Product Design Process 41 continuous improvement mentality through interfunctional teams, this would lead to tremendous improvements in productivity.
Tuff Wheels Kiddy Dozer a. Chapter 4 42 b. The results are shown below for both scenarios. The impact of changing the interest rate is shown below. There is still a positive NPV but it shrinks the interest rate increases. This would be expected since a higher the interest rate reduces the present value of future cash flows. Product Design Process 43 2. Perot Corporation Patay2 Chip. See results below.
Chapter 4 44 c. Reduced sales estimates have a significant impact on the NPV. The success of the Patay2 Chip is very dependent on the sales estimates. It would be wise for Perot to make sure that there is sufficient demand for Patay2 Chips.
Answers will vary based upon the product selected and the student. Issues that should be considered in the design and manufacture of a product include design process traditional vs. Product Design Process 45 4. Answers may vary. Chapter 4 46 5. This can be a fairly extensive assignment depending upon the amount of research students do into paddle manufacturing.
Without doing any library or field study on the production process, students should be able to come up with a solution approximating the one given below. Product Design Process 47 2 Assembly chart www. Main Piece Operation number Operation description Dept.
Setup time Pieces per hour Tools 10 Cut to size Saw 1. Handle Facing Operation number Operation description Dept.
Setup time Pieces per hour Tools 15 Cut to size Saw 0. Rubber Surface Operation number Operation description Dept. Setup time Pieces per hour Tools 16 Cut to size in batches of 24 Saw 0. Chapter 4 50 5. Process Flow Diagram. The capacity of the entire process is 5, units per week, with assembly line 1 limiting the overall capacity. Product Design Process 51 The capacity of the entire process is 8, units per week, with drilling machines limiting the overall capacity.
The capacity of the entire process is 9, units per week, with final assembly machines limiting t he overall capacity. Set them equal to each other and solve for X to determine the breakeven point.
Therefore, it is better to download the units when you produce less than ,, and better to produce them when demand is greater than , units. If you kept any of your old exam grades from last semester, get them out and write down the grades. Use Exhibits TN4. If not, can you give some reasons why not? It would be. In other words, doing the same exact task over and over again. In this case, new material is covered from one exam to the next. This change in material might impact on the learning curve.
Technical Note 4 54 2. How might the following business specialists use learning curves: As a manager, which learning percentage would you prefer other things being equal , percent or 60 percent? Students tend at first glance to erroneously associate higher learning percentages with faster learning.
Relative to the percent learning rate, strict interpretation of this would mean that every time output doubles, production time per unit increases by 10 percent. With a 60 percent learning rate, every time output doubles, production time per unit decreases by 40 percent.
These statements can be verified by simple arithmetic. What difference does it make if a customer wants a 10, unit order produced and delivered all at one time or in 2, unit batches?
Aside from the costs of resetup, undoubtedly some relearning is necessary each time one of the 2, unit orders is produced. This would result in additional time and more material and other resource usage.
What might be better and cheaper at least from a learning curve perspective is to produce the entire 10, unit order and simply deliver 2, units at a time to the customer. Ratio for 50th unit from Exhibit TN4. Unit Ratio Exhibit TN4. Technical Note 4 56 3.
For labor the following learning was experienced: From Exhibit TN4. This would assume no forgetting. However, the worst case would be total forgetting, which would imply that there was no benefit to having produced units 1 and 2. This cost would be as follows. Complete forgetting: For 1,th unit from Exhibit TN4. Technical Note 4 58 6.
Learning Curves 59 8. According to the following table, that doesn't occur until after car Unless each mechanic is going to service over 25 cars, it's not a good deal. Technical Note 4 60 9. For the 22nd unit: Labor 4, Do not hire. Two factors determine if an individual will meet the 30 minute requirement for the 20th unit: Using tables such as Exhibit TN4. Compare this value to the required 30 minutes.
Concern is that the value of the learning rate is estimated from on two points. Learning Curves 61 Time for 1, units from Exhibit TN4. Since the average time per unit is less than 20 hours, take the contract. We interpolate to find the factor for the 11th.
For the 10th unit from Exhibit TN4. For the th unit from Exhibit TN4. Technical Note 4 62 From TN4. Compare McDonald's old and new processes for making hamburgers. How valid is McDonald's claim that the new process will produce fresher hamburgers for the customers? Comparing McDonald's new process to the processes used by Burger King and Wendy's, which process would appear to produce the freshest hamburgers? Exhibit 5.
McDonald's old process was a make-to-stock, where orders were pulled from finished goods. However, McDonald's new process will assemble-to-order. Therefore, McDonald's claim of a fresher hamburger should hold.
Burger King's process is a combination of McDonald's old and new processes. The best Burger King can hope to do is match McDonald's with their orders that are assembled-to-order.
The ones that are taken from finished goods will generally not be as fresh. Wendy's, on the other hand, should beat both McDonald's and Burger King on freshness, since they cook-to-order Make-to-order! State in your own words what Little's Law means. Think of an example that you have observed where Little's Law applies. Little's Law shows the relationship between throughput rate, throughput time, and the amount of work- in-process inventory. Specifically, it is throughput time equals amount of work-in-process inventory divided by the throughput rate.
Little's Law is useful for examining the performance of a process. Example 5. Explain how having more work-in-process inventory can improve the efficiency of a process? How can this ever be bad?
More work-in-process inventory can be used to buffer multiple stage processes. Specifically, it can help with blocking or starving. Blocking is when the activities in the stage must stop because there is no place to deposit the item just completed. Starving is when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no work. Buffer inventories between operations can help relieve these problems, and improve the efficiency of the overall process. Increasing work-in-process inventory can be bad in that it involves more investment in inventory, as well as taking-up valuable floor space.
Also, the JIT philosophy view work-in-process as being negative for a variety of reasons more on JIT in a later chapter. Recently some Operations Management experts have begun insisting that simple minimizing process velocity, which actually means minimizing the time that it takes to process something through the system, is the single most important measure for improving a process.
Can you think of a situation when this might not be true? The problem with focusing exclusively on process velocity is that other dimensions might be ignored, such as quality or safety. There are many examples. One would be if drying time was reduced, this might impact the quality of the process. Another example would be whiskey, reducing the aging time would probably impact its quality.
Traditional method: Alternative method: Therefore, the traditional method is best. The longest process on this "assembly line" will govern the output. Therefore, the maximum output from this line will be: Therefore, this line cannot produce the 2, students per week.
The average amount being supplied is only 2. The market will be shy by. One operator per project: The productivity of this option is also 1.
For the two operator approach, www. The first operator would be idle for an average of 10 minutes each project. The labor content for the first option is hours. The second option requires hours of labor. Current plans are to make units of component A, then units of component B, then units of component A, then units of component B, etc, where the setup and run times for each component are given below. This packaging time is small enough that you can ignore it.
What is the average hourly output, in terms of the number of units of packaged product which includes 1 component A and 1 component B? Chapter 5 66 6. If we take the maximum of orders then: Orders are taken for 12 hours. Process Analysis 67 d. Orders are picked for 15 hours.
Chapter 5 68 8. We can not handle all the customers by 5: The last customers are processed after National State closes their doors at 5: The maximum waiting time is A customer should complete service every. The expected output is 3. But, after simulating this process, the actual output would be less due to the starving that takes place in the system. Why might practicing managers and industrial engineers be skeptical about job enrichment and sociotechnical approaches to job design?
Job enrichment by definition moves away from specialization, which, from a purely mechanical standpoint, is the most efficient way to work. Sociotechnical approaches include job enrichment as a design strategy and in addition emphasize worker and work group autonomy. Thus, managers and industrial engineers have legitimate concerns about the implications of these approaches on output, planning, and control.
Professors commonly complain to their families that book writing is hard work and that they should be excused from helping out with the housework so that they can rest. Which exhibit in this chapter should they never let their families see? Exhibit TN5. Thus, from a purely physical standpoint, professors cannot plead overwork on the job to avoid chores at home.
Is there an inconsistency when a company requires precise time standards and encourages job enlargement?
This depends greatly on the job at hand. However, if the elements of the enriched job are well defined and standardized, there is no reason why objective standards cannot be set for enriched jobs.
As an aside, it is worth emphasizing that work simplification notions are not incompatible with any of the behaviorally oriented approaches to job design. Match the following techniques to their most appropriate application; a.
Worker-machine chart a. Washing clothes at a Laundromat b. Process chart b. Tracing your steps in getting a parking permit c. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Administracion y direccion de la produccion Fernando d Alessio. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this document? Why not share! Tecnologias Emergentes para la Prod Embed Size px.
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