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The Different Flavors of Chef. Chef Wiki As A PDF .. As you learn to use Chef, you'll need to understand what each of the different. Learning Chef is like learning the basics of a language. • 80% fluency reached quickly. • 20% just takes practice. • The best way to LEARN Chef is to USE Chef. Chef is a configuration management technology developed by Opscode to We assume anyone who wants to learn Chef should have an understanding of.
PostgreSQL is used to store data. An Apache Solr instance, wrapped by chef-solr, is used for indexing and search. A web interface, known as Chef manage, is available for common Chef server management tasks. For more specifications, see the Chef System Requirements documentation page. When a cookbook is uploaded to the Chef server, the new version of the cookbook is compared to the one already stored; if there are changes, a new version is stored.
The Chef server only stores one copy of a file or template, meaning if resources are shared between cookbooks and cookbook versions, they will not be stored multiple times. Workstations Workstations are where users create, test, and maintain cookbooks and policies that will be pushed to the Chef server and pulled by nodes. The workstation functionality is available by downloading the Chef Workstation package , which was formerly known as ChefDK.
The Chef Workstation provides chef and knife command line tools, the testing tools Test Kitchen, ChefSpec, Cookstyle, and Foodcritic, and InSpec a tool that allows you to write automated tests for compliance, security and policy requirements. Additionally, the dependency manager for Chef cookbooks, Berkshelf, is installed. The Chef Workstation package can be installed on virtual servers or on personal computers.
Workstations are set to interact with a single Chef server, and most work will be done in the chef-repo directory located on the workstation. Cookbooks created on workstations can be used privately by one organization, or uploaded to the Chef Supermarket for others to use.
Similarly, workstations can be used to download cookbooks created by other Chef users and found in the Supermarket. The chef-repo should be version-controlled with a remote version control system, like Git.
Chef is able to communicate with the server from the chef-repo and push any changes via the use of knife commands.
You can easily generate a Chef repository using the following command: chef generate repo repo-name. Knife The Knife command line tool is the primary way that a workstation communicates the contents of its chef-repo directory with a Chef server.
It also provides an interface for you to manage nodes, cookbooks, roles, environments, and databags. The Knife command line tool is configured with the knife. The default value, :info, notes that any informational messages will be logged. Other values include :debug:, :warn, :error, and :fatal. If set to another value standard output logging will still be performed.
This user will need a valid authorization key located on the workstation. These values must match during a chef-client run. This can also be an IP address. Test Kitchen Test Kitchen provides you with a development environment on your workstation to create, test, and iterate on your cookbooks before distributing its contents to your production nodes. You can use the Kitchen command line tool to run integration tests against different platforms allowing you to test for the variety of nodes running on your production infrastructure.
Nodes A node is any machine that is managed by a Chef server. Each node must have a corresponding Chef client installed in order to execute the steps needed to bring the node into the required stated defined by a cookbook.
Nodes are validated through the validator. All nodes must be bootstrapped over SSH as either the root user or a user with elevated privileges. Nodes are kept up-to-date through the use of the chef-client, which runs a convergence between the node and the Chef server.
What cookbooks and roles the node will take on depends on the run list and environment set for the node in question. The chef-client must be run with elevated privileges in order to properly configure the node, and should be run periodically to ensure that the server is always up to date — often this is achieved through a cron job or by setting up the chef-client to run as a service.
Run Lists Run lists define which recipes a node will use. The run list is an ordered list of all roles and recipes that the chef-client needs to pull from the Chef server to run on a node. Roles are used to define patterns and attributes across nodes. Ohai Ohai collects information regarding nodes for the Chef client.
It is required to be present on every node, and is installed as part of the bootstrap process. The information gathered includes network and memory usage, CPU data, kernel data, hostnames, FQDNs, and other automatic attributes that helps the Chef client determine the state of the node prior to applying that nodes run list.
This allows for users to combine environments and versioned cookbooks to have different attributes for different nodes. To change this, the environment should be defined in the client. When not to adopt DevOps? It should not be used in a mission-critical application like bank, power and other sensitive data sites.
Such applications need strict access controls on the production environment, a detailed change management policy, access control policy to the data centers. DevOps Lifecycle DevOps is deep integration between development and operations. Understanding DevOps is not possible without knowing DevOps lifecycle. Here is a brief information about the Continuous DevOps life-cycle: 1. Development In this DevOps stage the development of software takes place constantly.
In this phase, the entire development process is separated into small development cycles. This benefits DevOps team to speed up software development and delivery process. Testing QA team use tools like Selenium to identify and fix bugs in the new piece of code.
Integration In this stage, new functionality is integrated with the prevailing code, and testing takes place. Continuous development is only possible due to continuous integration and testing.
Deployment In this phase, the deployment process takes place continuously. It is performed in such a manner that any changes made any time in the code, should not affect the functioning of high traffic website. Monitoring In this phase, operation team will take care of the inappropriate system behavior or bugs which are found in production.
DevOps Work Flow Workflows provide a visual overview of the sequence in which input is provided. It also tells about actions are performed, and output is generated for an operations process.
Workflow allows the ability to separate and arrange jobs which are top-requested by the users.
It also gives the ability to mirror their ideal process in the configuration jobs. How is DevOps different from Agile? Agile addresses gaps in Customer and Developer communications DevOps addresses gaps in Developer and IT Operations communications Agile Emphasize breaking down barriers between developers and management. DevOps is about software deployment and operation teams. Addresses gap between customer requirements and development teams. Addresses the gap between development and Operation team Focuses more on functional and non-functional readiness It focuses operational and business readiness.
Agile development pertains mainly to the way development is thought out by the company. DevOps emphases on deploying software in the most reliable and safest ways which aren't necessarily always the fastest. Agile development puts a huge emphasis on training all team members to have varieties of similar and equal skills. So that, when something goes wrong, any team member can get assistance from any member in the absence of the team leader.
DevOps, likes to divide and conquer, spreading the skill set between the development and operation teams. It also maintains consistent communication.
Agile development manages on "sprints. It means that the time table is much shorter less than a month and several features are to be produced and released in that period. DevOps strives for consolidated deadlines and benchmarks with major releases, rather than smaller and more frequent ones. Customer-Centric Action: DevOps team must take customer-centric action for that they should constantly invest in products and services.
This enhances the level of responsibility and the quality of the products engineered. Continuous Improvement: DevOps culture focuses on continuous improvement to minimize waste. It continuously speeds up the improvement of product or services offered. Automate everything: Automation is a vital principle of DevOps process. This is not only for the software development but also for the entire infrastructure landscape.
Work as one team: In the DevOps culture role of the designer, developer, and tester are already defined. All they needed to do is work as one team with complete collaboration. Monitor and test everything: It is very important for DevOps team to have a robust monitoring and testing procedures.
Who is a DevOps Engineer? A DevOps Engineer is an IT professional who works with software developers, system operators, and other production IT staff to administer code releases. DevOps should have hard as well as soft skills to communicate and collaborate with development, testing, and operations teams.
DevOps approach needs frequent, incremental changes to code versions, which means frequent deployment and testing regimens. Although DevOps engineers need to code occasionally from scratch, it is important that they should have the basics of software development languages.
A DevOps engineer will work with development team staff to tackle the coding and scripting needed to connect elements of code, like libraries or software development kits.