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Table of Contents: Download Sample PDF. Engineering Heat And Mass Transfer. Advance Mathematics Objective Mechanical Engineering. Industrial Automation and Robotics. Engineering Physics by Dr. Gupta and Sanjeev Gupta.
Process, Cycle Two states are identical if, and only if, the properties of the two states are identical. When any property of a system changes in value there is a change in state, and the system is said to undergo a process.
When a system in a given initial state goes through a sequence of processes and finally returns to its initial state, it is said to have undergone a cycle. Phase and Pure Substance The term phase refers to a quantity of matter that is homogeneous throughout in both chemical compo- sition and physical structure. Homogeneity in physical structure means that the matter is all solid, or all liquid , or all vapor or equivalently all gas. A system can contain one or more phases.
A pure substance is one that is uniform and invariable in chemical composition. A pure substance can exist in more than one phase, but its chemical composition must be the same in each phase.
For example, if liquid water and water vapor form a system with two phases, the system can be regarded as a pure substance because each phase has the same composition. The nature of phases that coexist in equilibrium is addressed by the phase rule Section 2. Equilibrium Equilibrium means a condition of balance.
In thermodynamics the concept includes not only a balance of forces, but also a balance of other influences. Each kind of influence refers to a particular aspect of thermodynamic complete equilibrium.
Thermal equilibrium refers to an equality of temperature, mechanical equilibrium to an equality of pressure, and phase equilibrium to an equality of chemical potentials Section 2. Chemical equilibrium is also established in terms of chemical potentials Section 2. For complete equilibrium the several types of equilibrium must exist individually. To determine if a system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, one may think of testing it as follows: isolate the system from its surroundings and watch for changes in its observable properties.
If there are no changes, it may be concluded that the system was in equilibrium at the moment it was isolated.
The system can be said to be at an equilibrium state.
When a system is isolated, it cannot interact with its surroundings; however, its state can change as a consequence of spontaneous events occurring internally as its intensive properties, such as temperature and pressure, tend toward uniform values. When all such changes cease, the system is in equilibrium. At equilibrium.
If gravity is significant, a pressure variation with height can exist, as in a vertical column of liquid. Temperature A scale of temperature independent of the thermometric substance is called a thermodynamic temperature scale.
The Kelvin scale, a thermodynamic scale, can be elicited from the second law of thermodynamics Section 2. The definition of temperature following from the second law is valid over all temperature ranges and provides an essential connection between the several empirical measures of temperature. In particular, temperatures evaluated using a constant- volume gas thermometer are identical to those of the Kelvin scale over the range of temperatures where gas thermometry can be used.
The empirical gas scale is based on the experimental observations that 1 at a given temperature level all gases exhibit the same value of the product p is pressure and the specific volume on a molar basis if the pressure is low enough, and 2 the value of the product increases with the temperature level. On this basis the gas temperature scale is defined by where T is temperature andis the universal gas constant. The absolute temperature at the triple point of water Section 2.
Thus, temperature differences are identical on both scales. However, the zero point on the Celsius scale is shifted to In thermodynamic relationships, temperature is always in terms of the Kelvin or Rankine scale unless specifically stated otherwise.
A degree of the same size as that on the Rankine scale is used in the Fahrenheit scale, but the zero point is shifted according to the relation 2. The Celsius or Kelvin degrees between the ice point and steam point corresponds to Fahrenheit or Rankine degrees.
To provide a standard for temperature measurement taking into account both theoretical and practical considerations, the International Temperature Scale of ITS is defined in such a way that the temperature measured on it conforms with the thermodynamic temperature, the unit of which is the kelvin, to within the limits of accuracy of measurement obtainable in The First Law of Thermodynamics, Energy Energy is a fundamental concept of thermodynamics and one of the most significant aspects of engineering analysis.
Energy can be stored within systems in various macroscopic forms: kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and internal energy. Energy can also be transformed from one form to another and transferred between systems.
For closed systems, energy can be transferred by work and heat transfer. The total amount of energy is conserved in all transformations and transfers. Work In thermodynamics, the term work denotes a means for transferring energy.
Work is an effect of one system on another that is identified and measured as follows: work is done by a system on its surroundings if the sole effect on everything external to the system could have been the raising of a weight.
The test of whether a work interaction has taken place is not that the elevation of a weight is actually changed, nor that a force actually acted through a distance, but that the sole effect could be the change in elevation of a mass.