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Engineering Drawing Pdf File

Textbook of. Engineering Drawing. Second Edition. K. Venkata Reddy. Prof. & HOD of Mechanical Engineering Dept. C.R. Engineering College,. Tirupati - . DOWNLOAD PDF Preface This latest edition of A Manual of Engineering Drawing has been revised to include changes resulting from the introduction of BS. by having someone attempt to make a sketch from your description. Effectiveness of Graphics Language. The word languages are inadequate for describing the.

Free shipping for individuals worldwide Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days. About this Textbook The primary objective of this book is to provide an easy approach to the basic principles of Engineering Drawing, which is one of the core subjects for undergraduate students in all branches of engineering. Emphasis is placed on the precise and logical presentation of the concepts and principles that are essential to understanding the subject. The methods presented help students to grasp the fundamentals more easily. In addition, the book highlights essential problem-solving strategies and features both solved examples and multiple-choice questions to test their comprehension. About the authors K. He has thirty-three years of teaching experience at Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India, where he has offered courses on e. Engineering Drawing, Thermodynamics, and Fluid Mechanics at the undergraduate level. He has published two papers in the Journal of Sound and Vibration and two papers in Acta Acustica in the areas of acoustic wave propagation in tubes. His specialty is Engineering Drawing, an area he has taught in for more than thirty years.

When completed, the construction grid may be deleted. Tracing facilities and the ability to print layers together or apart are a valuable draughting asset. The physical equipment components of a computer system are known as the hardware. The programs and data used on the computer are defined as the software.

Another advantage of CAD is its ability to store line systems and other entities, which are frequently used on drawings. For example, software containing symbols to British, European and other International Standards is freely available for most engineering applications. The draughtsman can also create libraries of regularly used parts. For repetitive use on a drawing, a typical item may be retrieved and positioned in seconds, also oriented at any angle to suit particular circumstances.

As a drawing aid, every CAD program must provide basic geometric features, permitting the operator to blend lines and arcs etc.

It is necessary in engineering drawing to be able to determine points of tangency between straight lines and curves and between curves of different radii. Productivity is much improved by a program enabling you to easily draw polygons, ellipses, multiple parallel lines and multiple parallel curves. The speed of machine drawing is increased by the use of automatic fillets and chamfers.

Copy, rotate and mirror facilities give assistance when drawing symmetrical parts. Automatic cross-hatching within closed boundaries is useful in the construction of sectional views and when indicating adjacent parts and different materials. Many changes of hatch patterns are supplied with CAD programs. Filling areas in various colours is a requirement in artwork. The ability to zoom in and out is an asset when drawing to scale. It is possible to work on fine detail in an assembly and then zoom out to observe the result in context.

CAD information is stored in digital form and hence, irrespective of the size of the final printed drawing; it is possible to accurately dimension components automatically. If a special font is required to match an existing style then specialist vendors can supply. Alphabets in different languages present no problem. Quite clearly the physically largest affordable screen has many advantages.

The screen should give high resolution, necessary to provide an image that is flicker free. The quality of the display will have a big contribution to make in the avoidance of fatigue and eyestrain. Firsthand practical experience and a demonstration is important here for an ideal solution. Plotting and printing equipment will vary according to drawing office requirements. It is true, however, that many CAD installations are judged by the quality of their plotted drawings.

It is necessary to also have a demonstration and this will ensure that an excellent CAD system will have an output to do it justice. A wide variety of plotters are available for reproductions from A4 to AO in size, and in a quality suitable for production work or the most prestigious presentations. Probably the best-known software in the Drawing Office is that from AutoCAD, who build products that conform to the most widely used DWG format permitting the transfer of information between networks.

In the s, 2D drawing packages were introduced with the ability to slowly draw lines, circles and text. Rapid developments have taken place since with a vast increase in computing power.

The computer industry has expanded, progressed and now produces software for an ever increasing number of engineering applications. Computing power is vital for the operation of highly sophisticated research projects, advanced design and modelling programs. Communication developments have had a profound effect regarding the methods that we use for our current solutions. We have the capability to transmit files of drawings and notes from the computer screen for use by collaborative partners, and the Internet can transmit information around the world in seconds.

Solid models suitably animated can also be viewed in 3D to clarify detail and this can be a considerable asset where perhaps there is a change of language. User manuals for domestic equipment are commonly drawn in solid modelling programs to illustrate sequences of assembly and improve clarity for nontechnical customers. A very important part of work in the drawing office is dealing and handling revisions and modifications.

It is possible to link drawings so that if you update the master, linked drawings are updated automatically. Modifications use quite a large proportion of drawing office time. Immediate transmission to all members of an associated group has considerable advantages. Examples here are recall notices for car owners and faulty items in domestic appliances. There are many examples where various component parts are manufactured in different countries and brought together for assembly and testing.

The aircraft industry is a typical case.

Drawings are reproduced in many sizes and small items present little difficulty with zoom facilities. Views drawn to different scales and a variety of orientations can be arranged on the same drawing print as an aid to comprehension. Windows giving an overall view of your drawing for fast zooming and panning are also of value.

Autodesk, Inc. Courses in AutoCAD r programs are taught in many educational establishments, and since certified national courses of study by the City and Guilds of London Institute have been conducted throughout the country. Authorized training centres cater for the needs of local industry and for those who wish to develop their CAD skills further. Autodesk r has been at the forefront of applying standards within the computer aided design environment. The main professional program AutoCAD is very much a non-specific or generic CAD tool and many applications are available to the basic graphics package, which enhance its suitability for a particular discipline.

Full specifications for these products can be found on the Web by visiting http: AutoCAD is the technology platform, which facilitates communication and collaboration between team members involved in design projects, also, clients, suppliers and vendors.

Typical projects could involve solutions involving building design, communication, and government utilities land development and manufacturing industries. It can also download design data from the Internet, allow you to automatically publish design data on the Web, host online meetings, drag and drop content from manufacturers websites into your drawings and much more. It delivers higher levels of productivity through unmatched performance and simplicity. Work on multiple drawings can be undertaken.

As an example of the flexibility and range of typical projects about 40 typical case histories are given on the Company website. Below are listed some products either from Autodesk or others which integrate directly with Autodesk products.

This ensures compatibility throughout the design process, from conception, through design, testing and manufacturing.

CAD organization and applications AutoCAD Mechanical is a purpose built 2D mechanical design solution providing an ideal platform for production drawing and detailing.

Additional useful add-on programs are available for analysis and manufacturing solutions from MSC and Pathtrace, as well as document management solutions from Cyco.

Autodesk Inventor Series. For integrated 2D design and detailing, 3D assembly, parametric design and the capability to produce complex 3D surface models, Inventor Series 5 gives you the following compatible programs.

The series includes Autodesk Inventor 5. You get all of these technologies in one easy-to-use package giving you flexibility to use what you want when you want. No need to choose between 2D and 3D. A flexible display system used to manage and create plans, elevations, sections and 3D views. Designed with an automatic scheduling feature and links to VIZ4. Building design information can be shared with the rest of the project team.

Designs in 3D assist in coordination and approval with clients. Autodesk VIZ 4 is a software program for design conceptualization and visualization, which combines modelling, texturing, and rendering features to create stunning visual presentations and walkthroughs. The program quickly and simply generates 3D models and has a comprehensive library of materials and textures.

Piranesi is a three dimensional paint program, which enables architects, artists and designers to produce high quality stylized artwork from 3D models. Unlike conventional 2D paint programs, Piranesi paint tools enable you to use colours, tints and textures a brick pattern say straight onto selected parts of an image, without overpainting other objects.

It can be used by itself to produce artwork from AutoCAD models directly, but it really comes into its own when used as a post-processor for VIZ. NavisWorks is a software program which can navigate and view models of extreme size and allow all design data to be brought together into one.

This facility enables faults to be detected early during project development 15 rather than on site after construction begins.

The program automatically locates and highlights areas of the model where parts interfere or clash with each other. Faults are easily communicated to others in the design team.

Basic Engineering Drawing

A wide range of companies, contractors and designers can work on a single project without having to get together in the same place at the same time. This obviously reduces hidden project costs. Autodesk Raster Design 3. Scanned paper drawings, aerial photos, satellite imagery and maps can be integrated into the computer system and edited raster data converted to vector.

Vectorization Tools with Smart Correct technology create lines, polylines, circles, arcs, text and rectangles. Intersecting raster geometry can be preserved when raster entities are moved or erased. The program can read and write georeferenced images to and from the Web. Raster design can help you gain more value from existing archive drawings and possibly avoid time-consuming redrafts. For many CAD users AutoCAD is too comprehensive, advanced and expensive for their needs and in cases where the draughtsman is mainly responsible for layout work and design work, which does not involve sophisticated modelling and rendering, then this program is well worth considering.

The ability to draw and to use the drawing, or part of the drawing, in a word processor document will be much appreciated. The software has a familiar feel as it uses the Windows interface, so if you have used pull-down menus, dialogue boxes and the drag and drop simplicity of Windows; you will soon master the basics since the Help feature provides an on-line guided learning assistance tour. The toolbox and toolbar can easily be customized and arranged to suit your own preferences and style of working.

The system will also accommodate a selection of symbol files. It is a low cost package, ideal for anyone who wants to use a computer to sketch or draw without investing in a full-scale system. Drawings, patterns and fonts are represented by simple symbols, or icons. You can draw on multiple layers and look at them in any combination.

Repetitive drawing is eliminated: Having drawn an object you can move, copy, rotate, mirror, stretch and erase it until it matches your needs. You can group components together and treat them as one, and break them apart for editing. Expanded memory support allows you to work with large drawings. Part clipping allows you to select items from existing drawing files and use them in others. Text and notes can easily be added or edited on the drawing using a variety of fonts.

The drawing features include line options, arcs, ellipses, circles, points, pattern fill areas, spline curves and polylines with variable line width. Automatic fillets and chamfers are possible, and the program also offers zoom and pan facilities. The program allows you to export drawings directly into AutoCAD, and a wide selection of desktop publishing packages. Computer and software download It is strongly recommended that before any downloads are made, the client seeks advice from a recognized and authorized dealer, as they would be able to check that the equipment can perform the tasks you expect in your style of working.

Practical demonstrations are very necessary before issuing orders. CAD equipment is a tool and there are possibly many ways of doing the same job. In this computer age it may well be that an experienced dealer can indicate a better and more productive way.

Your supplier would also give you a written specification for computers and software indicating any other relevant equipment required for protection and safe operation. Project development The reader will appreciate that the design of, for example, a large construction project from its conception, will involve technical input from architects and engineering designers in a wide variety of associated disciplines.

It is vital that all contributors to the overall scheme talk the same language and that only compatible computer software packages are in use for the separate areas of work. In addition, the management contractor must have access to the designs as work is in progress. Before the age of CAD it was the practice to have countless meetings in order to co-ordinate progress.

Design obviously continues in steps and in planning and construction work problems arise, and designers need to be in a position to make modifications to overcome them, before progressing to the next phase.

The building services engineer must ensure that the environment to keep both controllers and equipment comfortable is maintained 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Due to the extensive use of computers at the centre, a huge amount of electrical, heating, ventilating and air conditioning plant needed to be installed. Different specialist contractors were responsible for these services under the stewardship of the management contractor. At this development, it was accepted by contractors that for some drawings it was practical to work in three dimensions to make it easier, for example, to ensure clearances between piping and ductwork in the more cramped areas.

Layout drawings in 3D permitted engineers to demonstrate clearly to other parties where, for example, electrical cables and conduits were likely to plough straight through heating and ventilation ducts. Potential problems were solved on screen rather than emerging during construction. In addition, adequate access for maintenance purposes and replacement of equipment could be confirmed. The draughtsman can check designs by altering the angles from which arrangements are viewed on screen. In the design of many heavy engineering plant layouts it is often the practice to build a scale model of the plant as design work progresses.

The function of the model is to keep a running check on the feasibility of the installation. Obvious improvements can then be incorporated. Constructions of chemical plants and oil refineries are typical examples.

After completion of the project, models may be used for publicity purposes and to assist in the education of technicians who operate and service the equipment. Three dimensional modelling has many other applications in the film and entertainment industry and drawings in 3D can materially assist in comprehension. When many workstations have to be installed for a design team, it is vital to agree on working methods. Agreement is necessary on the organization of many aspects of work and in CAD, these include the use of layers, the groupings of the various sections of CAD organization and applications construction designs, use of colours so that similar ductwork appears on the screen in the same shade, procedures for the transfer of data between several drawing offices, methods of structuring data for archiving and to help future retrieval.

The quality of all drawing work needs to be uniform and conform to BS for a complete understanding and to avoid ambiguity. It is essential that all contributors work as a team and in harmony if planning deadlines are to be kept, as obviously, delays in one area of construction can hold up another contractors work, and may result in financial loss.

The designs for services and installations originate from specifications and schematic layouts, supplied by Consulting Engineers, acting on behalf of the Clients or Agents. For layout work a typical draughting package which covers all aspects of services, such as electrical, lighting, communication, alarms, ductwork, sanitary and mechanical plant, is desirable and time saving.

Standard symbols can be inserted on their apropriate drawing layer, rotated automatically to align with a wall or ceiling grid and automatically scaled so that they are plotted at the correct scale. These settings can also be customized to enable you to predefine commonly used layers and sizes. The package will assist in the creation of working drawings and in the detailing of, for example, sections of ductwork, the program will prompt for the dimensions, elevation and layer; subsequent sections of ductwork are then able to attach automatically, matching the layer and size.

Parametric routines are also used to efficiently design a wide variety of bends, tees, branches and transition pieces for all types of square, rectangular, circular and oval ductwork. Schedules of fittings need to be created with essential information and if necessary interfaced with other database or spreadsheet programs, in order to prepare bills of materials.

Electrical wiring systems for lighting and services must be designed in accordance with I. Wiring Regulations and programs are available to provide the essential requirements of both the electrical designer and contractor. Schematic diagrams are easily prepared up to AO in size, showing load descriptions, protective device and cable sizes as well as sub-main details. Board and way data, Cable sizes and voltage drops, Short circuit currents and disconnection times, Discrimination charts, Input data, Calculation file data, Load current summary, Voltage drop summary, Equipment schedules.

Size of computer As a rough guide to selection, the larger the drawing and degree of complexity, the more important is the performance and power of the computer and its operator.

If a drawing contains large areas which are crosshatched or shaded, for example, it is important to be able to redraw illustrations quickly to prevent time wasting. It is easy to obtain demonstrations of computer power and this is recommended. When selecting software products required to operate with each other, it is necessary to check compatibility; your dealer should advise.

You will appreciate from the applications mentioned above that associated specialist software is being developed all the time both here and in the US.

The one certain aspect is that future trends will use applications needing greater amounts of computer memory, so the chosen system must be expandable. Consideration must also be given to the question of storing drawings, filing systems and information retrieval. Given the rapid progress and changes in the Drawing Office during the last ten years the only prediction one can make is that the role of the draughtsman, far from diminishing, is more important than ever.

Parametric design It is a common drawing office practice, where a range of parts are similar, to produce a single drawing with a table of dimensions for the features of each separate component. The user will then need to sort out the appropriate sizes of each detail relating to the part required. The drawing itself being representative of a number of similar parts cannot be drawn true to scale for them all.

A study of Fig. It is defined on a single drawing where the main dimensions are expressed algebraically as ratios of the shank diameter of the screw and other relevant parametric values. For a given thread size and screw length the CAD system is able to produce a true-to-size drawing of any individual screw listed. Four typical screws are indicated at the right-hand side of the illustration.

Manual of engineering drawing. Second edition

It is always a positive advantage in design work to appreciate true sizes and use them in layouts. Components such as bolts, nuts, washers, fasteners, spindles, seals, etc. The parametric capability of the CAD system can be used to considerably improve productivity in this area of drawing office work.

Notice the visible connection between the features of the four components illustrated in Fig. This is a further example of parametrication where the principles of variational geometry have been applied.

The family of parts is constructed from a large and small cylinder with different diameters, lengths and central bore sizes. A chamfer at the left-hand end, a CAD organization and applications vertical hole extending into a slot and a flat surface at the top are added details. Parametric systems handle the full range of linear and angular dimensions including degrees and minutes. The computer will also calculate maximum and minimum limits of size from specified tolerance values.

Dimensions can be defined numerically or as algebraic expressions. You can avoid the need to dimension every fillet radius for example by setting a default value for radii. This means that unless a specific value is stated for a particular radius on a part that it will automatically be drawn at a previously agreed size. Where many radii are present, as in the case of casting work, this feature is a considerable aid to drawing office productivity.

A number of such defaults can be entered, to cover a variety of applications. Areas of detail within a drawing, which are not required to be parametricated can be excluded by enclosing them in a group line and this avoids the need to dimension every detail.

The geometry contained in the enclosed group may remain static or magnified when the part is parametricated. A further advantage of expressing dimensional values in algebraic form allows the designer to simulate the movement of mechanisms and produce loci drawings of specific points. It is essential in the design of mechanisms to appreciate the path taken by every point, which moves. Sheet metalwork application The design of components to be manufactured from folded sheet metal is a field in which CAD systems can offer great assistance.

In the case of the bracket shown in Fig. Metals behave quite differently when bent and the CAD system can be programmed to calculate an appropriate bend allowance. After stamping the bracket can be refolded with suitably radiused bends. In this particular case the dimensions of the stamping are also needed for the design of the press tool set. The design can be checked for material accuracy, weight, volume, and so on, before being committed to manufacture.

Computerized programs can be produced to operate lathes, mills, flame cutting machines, etc. Models may be constructed in several different ways, including: Each of these is summarized below. Geometric modellers build models from geometric solids, which have the attribute that mathematical formulae exactly define any point in 3D space occupied by these solids. Shapes include planes, cylinders, spheres, cones, toroids, etc. These shapes are combined using Boolean operations to produce the component.

The Boolean operations produce a 3D model by a combination of the following methods: This approach is very successful for modelling machined components but cannot handle anything that might be described as having a freeform shape. This shape would then be stamped from metal strip in a power press. The dimensions of the flat pattern have to make allowance for the bend radius, the metal thickness and Meshed surfaces. X, Y and Z co-ordinates are either calculated, transferred from 2D drawing views, or measured to provide basic modelling input.

The modeller will then generate a 3D meshed surface joining up all the specified points. In order to build up a welldefined surface, the modeller interpolates between points defined in the user input in order to develop a fine enough mesh to show a smooth change in cross-section. This method can be used to produce the freeform shapes used in, for example, styling household appliances.

This produces objects of any shape in terms of the x and y dimensions, but a constant value for the z dimension. Sweeps can model all of those components that look like they are extruded, or have been cut from steel plate.

For a model of a pipe a circular cross-section is swept or moved along a centreline of any shape. Volumes of revolution for objects the shape of which is symmetrical about a central axis.

The wheel is a simple example of this type of 3D object. The input is a half outline, or a cross-section through the object, which is rotated about the axis by the modeller, to produce a 3D illustration. Ruled surfaces is a simple form of modelling, where any two sections or profiles can be joined at all points by straight lines. An airfoil, or a turbine blade is a typical example where this method can be applied. Examples of various methods of CAD modelling are shown in Fig. In many cases, by using 3D modelling software the design can be partly automated.

In a typical application a consulting engineer would be appointed to devise an outline solution to a given problem and prepare a specification, defining in general terms, the scope of the job to be built. The plant system needs to be designed and tenders are invited from organizations with experience in plant construction that would be prepared to erect the project and commission the plant for the client in full working order according to an agreed timetable.

On large projects several competitive quotes may be sought from rival construction groups to be delivered by a given date. The client will then make a choice and all responsible parties sign legal contracts.

Having received an order to construct the plant, pipework systems basically require two types of drawings. Flow charts are functional diagrams showing the scheme and will include major items of plant. This diagrammatic arrangement is not to scale but shows the relative positions of main items and the connections between them.

The diagram illustrates the feasibility of the system. Equipment may be fixed at various levels. Assuming that a factory is to be built, then separate areas will be allocated to individual teams of draughtsmen who prepare layouts for structural work, manufacturing areas, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, compressed air and electrical services, etc.

Ground site surveys are undertaken and various datum levels established to act as benchmarks for reference measurements. Steelwork can now be designed for the factory and manufactured to suit the site contours. A 3D scale drawing could be constructed showing separate levels on which the items of plant are mounted. Straight lines representing the centrelines of interconnecting pipework are added.

Pipes are sized to ensure adequate flow of liquids or gases and to withstand the pressure exerted by the contents. Realistic pipework can now be added. Software is available with libraries of ready-made standard fittings.

Note carefully, however, which Standards are applicable. ISO and US standards are regularly used and specifications need to be checked. Ready-made welding symbols are also available.

The drawing office will be responsible for preparing lists and schedules of equipment required for fabrication and the following are typical: During erection, pipes are cut to length then welded into the pipelines.

Another vital task that the computer can determine is to check clearances where pipes cross to ensure that there is adequate space to allow erection and operation. The above are typical process tasks that can be handled by piping software. Communicating design concepts Mockups and prototypes Mockups and prototypes show how products and mechanisms look and perform but building them is a time-consuming process. A 3D model is life-like, popular and can be of considerable assistance for publicity purposes especially where the client has limited technical experience.

Recent developments are easy to use and an economical method of demonstrating engineering design concepts. Drawings can be communicated by email and have the advantage that they can be viewed by anyone who has a Windows PC. Products can be rotated through degrees to show how they appear from any angle so that movement through their cycle of operations can be demonstrated.

Simulation may be sufficient to reduce the need for expensive prototypes. Maximized sales and marketing opportunities may result from presenting new and novel product designs more effectively to customers and business prospects. Models can shorten development cycles and assist in fast product design changes. Animated drawings give you the opportunity to explode or collapse an assembly to demonstrate how the components fit together.

Confidence in a particular project also results from confirmation that it is acceptable and suitable in the market place. Production Many products require a considerable amount of testing. Safety is always vital and must be the top priority.

It needs to be remembered that all products must be designed so that the production department can economically manufacture them. The design must also be suitable for easy assembly and repair. Financial constraints should never be forgotten, hence meticulous care is taken in pre-production phases to reduce the time-to-market and eliminate modifications to the product, once mass production begins.

Rendering controls Presentations and proposals using photo-realistic images 21 add excitement and visual impact. Before applying rendering features to a model, the background and lighting conditions should be adjusted to simulate mood, time and scene composition. It can also apply lighting, shadows and ray tracing for reflective and transparent materials, and if required, background scenery. Smoothing areas of high contrast to improve appearance can enhance image quality.

Accuracy is improved through fully associative design. Mating constraints are preserved and the relationships between parts and assemblies. Drawings update automatically. Errors may be prevented and designs optimized by using Collision Detection to observe in real time how moving parts interact.

Visualization may be improved with enhanced graphical control of lights. Photo-realistic effects may also be created by means of sophisticated ray-traced lighting.

It is also possible to analyse the complete history of the design project and document an automated design process. The rendering mode quickly displays a shaded image of the model with materials attached. It is often convenient to save alternative production quality images of your design for comparison purposes and use in other associated design projects.

Alternative views can be a valuable and visible asset during training programs. Materials options Visual effects from libraries of life-like textures and materials can be added to 3D models easily, using commands available on the toolbar menu. Libraries are available with a wide selection of plastics, metals, woods, stones, and other textured materials which can be applied to entire parts, features, or individual faces.

Realistic changes can also be made to suggest surface reflectance, roughness, transparency and an irregular or indented appearance.

Typical AutoCAD drawings The following examples are meant to convey to the reader the extensive range of draughting facilities available from software associated with basic programs.

Obviously there is a certain amount of overlap in the scope of programs and often alternative ways of performing similar operations. Figures 3. A pictorial view can easily be generated after drawing orthographic views, which give the dimensions in three planes at right angles to each other. Figure 3. The viewing point and orientation is adjustable. Architectural drawings for the design of a shopping mall are reproduced in Fig. They show the outline of the development and how the completed construction could appear.

Alternative simulations may be used to assist the client in the choice of colour for the finished building. Design concepts, which are rendered clearly and convincingly, certainly aid at the stage where decisions need to be made to finalize aspects of shape, form and finish. The presentation of alternative solutions using the same master drawing is also an added bonus.

Engineered components are often designed for clients without a technical background. To be able to observe the final product in three dimensions with its approved finish and in an ideal situation will reduce design time. Many people have difficulty in reading drawings, but with a presentation of an internal building detail, which perhaps shows a slate floor, and coloured textured walls, then the client can understand exactly how the structure will look. The drawing bridges the communication gap.

Creating renderings is fast and since the data required is stored in the DWG file it cannot become separated from the component drawing. Menus and dialogue boxes are used. The program features include shading and ray tracing giving shadowing, reflection and refraction effects.

A comprehensive library of materials and textures can be used to create a variety of surfaces, such as wood, glass, marble, granite, etc. A wide selection of illumination tools and compatibility with associated software, allows the draughtsman to make walk-throughs, fly-throughs and animated product-assembly presentations. Lighting studies are easy and accurate. You can produce a variety of artificial, natural and mixed lighting effects. It is possible to arrange directional lights in various combinations and locations and control such characteristics as colour, intensity, attenuation and shadowing.

In addition, a Sun Locator lets you work easily with sunlight effects. You can position the sun to a specific time of day and year to create realistic sun—shadow combinations. The feature allows architects to calculate, for example, whether a living room will receive enough sunlight at midday in late December. On a larger scale, in the design of shopping malls for example, the position of the sun in relation to a particular area can materially affect heating, lighting and cooling loads.

You will appreciate that these programs can help to confirm design decisions and prevent misunderstandings while they are still easy and inexpensive to remedy. A perspective drawing of an internal part of a building in Fig. Drawing Describing any object information diagrammatically.

Jan 19, Can anybody give me the solutions of engineering drawing by ms access vba open pdf file n. Apr 14, Ltd, Anand. The object is projected onto a display screen by drawing lines at the location of each.

Engineering Drawing by N. Bhatt Texturing and Modeling by Davis S. The ability to zoom in and out is an asset when drawing to scale.

It is possible to work on fine detail in an assembly and then zoom out to observe the result in context. CAD information is stored in digital form and hence, irrespective of the size of the final printed drawing; it is possible to accurately dimension components automatically.

If a special font is required to match an existing style then specialist vendors can supply. Alphabets in different languages present no problem. Quite clearly the physically largest affordable screen has many advantages. The screen should give high resolution, necessary to provide an image that is flicker free.

The quality of the display will have a big contribution to make in the avoidance of fatigue and eyestrain.

Firsthand practical experience and a demonstration is important here for an ideal solution. Plotting and printing equipment will vary according to drawing office requirements. It is true, however, that many CAD installations are judged by the quality of their plotted drawings.

It is necessary to also have a demonstration and this will ensure that an excellent CAD system will have an output to do it justice. A wide variety of plotters are available for reproductions from A4 to AO in size, and in a quality suitable for production work or the most prestigious presentations. Probably the best-known software in the Drawing Office is that from AutoCAD, who build products that conform to the most widely used DWG format permitting the transfer of information between networks.

In the s, 2D drawing packages were introduced with the ability to slowly draw lines, circles and text. Rapid developments have taken place since with a vast increase in computing power. The computer industry has expanded, progressed and now produces software for an ever increasing number of engineering applications. Computing power is vital for the operation of highly sophisticated research projects, advanced design and modelling programs.

Communication developments have had a profound effect regarding the methods that we use for our current solutions. We have the capability to transmit files of drawings and notes from the computer screen for use by collaborative partners, and the Internet can transmit information around the world in seconds. Solid models suitably animated can also be viewed in 3D to clarify detail and this can be a considerable asset where perhaps there is a change of language.

A Guide to the Preparation of Civil Engineering Drawings

User manuals for domestic equipment are commonly drawn in solid modelling programs to illustrate sequences of assembly and improve clarity for nontechnical customers. A very important part of work in the drawing office is dealing and handling revisions and modifications. It is possible to link drawings so that if you update the master, linked drawings are updated automatically.

Modifications use quite a large proportion of drawing office time. Immediate transmission to all members of an associated group has considerable advantages. Examples here are recall notices for car owners and faulty items in domestic appliances. There are many examples where various component parts are manufactured in different countries and brought together for assembly and testing. The aircraft industry is a typical case.

Drawings are reproduced in many sizes and small items present little difficulty with zoom facilities. Views drawn to different scales and a variety of orientations can be arranged on the same drawing print as an aid to comprehension.

Windows giving an overall view of your drawing for fast zooming and panning are also of value. Autodesk, Inc. Courses in AutoCAD r programs are taught in many educational establishments, and since certified national courses of study by the City and Guilds of London Institute have been conducted throughout the country.

Engineering Drawing Text Book by ND Bhatt [pdf] - Latest Edition

Authorized training centres cater for the needs of local industry and for those who wish to develop their CAD skills further. Autodesk r has been at the forefront of applying standards within the computer aided design environment. The main professional program AutoCAD is very much a non-specific or generic CAD tool and many applications are available to the basic graphics package, which enhance its suitability for a particular discipline.

AutoCAD is the technology platform, which facilitates communication and collaboration between team members involved in design projects, also, clients, suppliers and vendors. Typical projects could involve solutions involving building design, communication, and government utilities land development and manufacturing industries. It can also download design data from the Internet, allow you to automatically publish design data on the Web, host online meetings, drag and drop content from manufacturers websites into your drawings and much more.

It delivers higher levels of productivity through unmatched performance and simplicity. Work on multiple drawings can be undertaken. As an example of the flexibility and range of typical projects about 40 typical case histories are given on the Company website. Below are listed some products either from Autodesk or others which integrate directly with Autodesk products.

This ensures compatibility throughout the design process, from conception, through design, testing and manufacturing. CAD organization and applications AutoCAD Mechanical is a purpose built 2D mechanical design solution providing an ideal platform for production drawing and detailing. Additional useful add-on programs are available for analysis and manufacturing solutions from MSC and Pathtrace, as well as document management solutions from Cyco. Autodesk Inventor Series.

For integrated 2D design and detailing, 3D assembly, parametric design and the capability to produce complex 3D surface models, Inventor Series 5 gives you the following compatible programs.

The series includes Autodesk Inventor 5. You get all of these technologies in one easy-to-use package giving you flexibility to use what you want when you want. No need to choose between 2D and 3D. A flexible display system used to manage and create plans, elevations, sections and 3D views.

Designed with an automatic scheduling feature and links to VIZ4. Building design information can be shared with the rest of the project team. Designs in 3D assist in coordination and approval with clients. Autodesk VIZ 4 is a software program for design conceptualization and visualization, which combines modelling, texturing, and rendering features to create stunning visual presentations and walkthroughs.

The program quickly and simply generates 3D models and has a comprehensive library of materials and textures.

Piranesi is a three dimensional paint program, which enables architects, artists and designers to produce high quality stylized artwork from 3D models. Unlike conventional 2D paint programs, Piranesi paint tools enable you to use colours, tints and textures a brick pattern say straight onto selected parts of an image, without overpainting other objects.

It can be used by itself to produce artwork from AutoCAD models directly, but it really comes into its own when used as a post-processor for VIZ.

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