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Kanchenjunga —on the Sikkim — Nepal border—is the highest point in the area administered by India. Most peaks in the Himalayas remain snowbound throughout the year. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia. Thus, northern India is kept warm or only mildly cooled during winter; in summer, the same phenomenon makes India relatively hot.

Kangchenjunga , the third highest mountain in the world , near the Zemu Glacier in Sikkim, India. The Karakoram is situated in the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir.

The southern boundary of the Karakoram is formed by the Gilgit , Indus and Shyok rivers, which separate the range from the northwestern end of the Himalayas. The Patkai , or Purvanchal, are situated near India's eastern border with Burma. They were created by the same tectonic processes which led to the formation of the Himalayas. The physical features of the Patkai mountains are conical peaks, steep slopes and deep valleys.

The Patkai ranges are not as rugged or tall as the Himalayas. The Garo—Khasi range lies in Meghalaya. Mawsynram , a village near Cherrapunji lying on the windward side of these hills, has the distinction of being the wettest place in the world, receiving the highest annual rainfall.

The range joins two of the ancient segments that make up the Indian craton , the Marwar segment to the northwest of the range, and the Bundelkhand segment to the southeast. The western end of the range lies in eastern Gujarat, near its border with Madhya Pradesh, and runs east and north, almost meeting the Ganges at Mirzapur Dry deciduous and thorny forests of plateau regions in India Satpura Range , lies south of Vindhya range and east of Aravali range, begins in eastern Gujarat near the Arabian Sea coast and runs east across Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

The average elevation of the Malwa plateau is metres, and the landscape generally slopes towards the north. Most of the region is drained by the Chambal River and its tributaries; the western part is drained by the upper reaches of the Mahi River. Much of the plateau is forested, covered by the Chhota Nagpur dry deciduous forests.

Vast reserves of metal ores and coal have been found in the Chota Nagpur plateau. The natural vegetation in most of the peninsula is xeric scrub , part of the Northwestern thorn scrub forests ecoregion.

Southern Garanulite terrain: Covers South India especially Tamilnadu excluding western and eastern ghats. Deccan Plateau , also called Deccan Trapps, is a large triangular plateau, bounded by the Vindhyas to the north and flanked by the Eastern and Western Ghats. The Deccan covers a total area of 1.

This region is mostly semi-arid as it lies on the leeward side of both Ghats. Much of the Deccan is covered by thorn scrub forest scattered with small regions of deciduous broadleaf forest. Climate in the Deccan ranges from hot summers to mild winters. However, defence sector needs structural reforms to increase domestic production. Elections Fair and free elections are the backbone of our democracy.

From Lok Sabha to local bodies, elections have become a part of our life and a strong tool for empowerment. But Lok Sabha elections was different from the previous ones in more that one ways. After a very long period over 30 years a single party got majority on its own. The elections were personality centric. The elections clearly manifested that youth was no longer ready to digest the blunders done by the previous UPA regimes.

Modi assumed the mantle of power and right now, as things seem, we are seeing a rather unconventional mode of politics and governance. The year was something that triggered a series of changes in India and the trickle effect will possibly cover the entire to settle down and give a final picture.

A changed political landscape would result in two important aspects in times to come. Indian politics was, since independence, dominated by vote banks politics based on religion, caste and other class factors and forces.

Smart politicians have realised the change mind set of the youth and the graffiti is on the wall! Indian Economy With the new government taking over this year, India seems to be back on course to getting back to the growth rates seen earlier in the best years.

By any standard, this is indeed a smart recovery. With the new government demonstrating serious intent in reforming the economy by initiating steps towards reforms in land acquisition laws, labour laws, introducing GST, increasing FDI in Insurance, Railways, Construction, Infrastructure and Defence.

Sensitive issues like deregulation of diesel have been initiated, while the coal and mining sector is being given an impetus through fresh auctions. Policies pertaining to clearances from the Environment and Forests are being revised to ensure faster clearances of projects. The fall in global commodity prices, especially crude oil has helped India improve its Balance of Payments situation.

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The domestic financial investors have also shown marked improvement in sentiment with mutual funds that were net sellers in the last couple of years having turned net downloaders this year. Mutual funds alone have pumped in 25, crore in equities this year. From , the economy saw its lowest GDP growth rate of 4. The best years saw growth rates touch 9. Industrial Growth However, the industrial growth rates have shown a different trend. The highest growth rate of During the recession years, the industrial growth rate plummeted to 0.

The industrial growth rate has been slow to post a recovery but current signs confirm that will be better than the previous two years. The agriculture and allied sectors have been erratic in growth rates and the period in question has not shown consistent growth or decline, in fact there have been sharp growth and decline in respective years. The year saw a negative growth rate of The very next year saw the best year posting 9.

Similarly, saw growth rate dip to 1. Agriculture and allied sectors have seen increasing interest from corporates who now see a growth opportunity in the sector, with the government adopting a more open policy to private sector investment in modernizing the sector.

With modernization and increased credit flow to the sector, growth rates are likely to continue to improve in the next few years. One sector which has been consistently growing at a rapid pace is the services sector. India is also witnessing rising investment in health services, clinical and pharmaceutical research, education and skill development. The share of the services sector in the overall economy continues to remain high.

The best years witnessed On the fiscal side, the Gross Domestic Savings touched its highest level in at The combined fiscal deficit centre and state had its best year in when it reached However, with the RBI adopting measures to curb the deficit, , the deficit stood at The inflation WPI average touched its highest point in at 9.

The CPI average touched it's highest at While the weakening of the rupee was mostly welcomed by the exporters, especially the IT sector, the same hit the industry hard that was directly or indirectly impacted by it. With the global slowdown, the economy was strained with almost all infrastructure related activities coming to a standstill in the years His initial steps have been to control inflation and bring down the trade deficit.

The curbs on gold import helped to bring down the CAD but by later , the Governor is under pressure to bring down interest rates to boost investment.

According to the Census Data , the population stood at The population has risen by In absolute terms, the population has risen by Interestingly, the female population has registered a higher growth rate at The children population count stood at The male child years has increased between and , while the female child in the same age group has decreased marginally. The density of population per square km in India is persons. Delhi recorded the highest people density amongst all cities at Arunachal Pradesh had the lowest density per square km.

Energy In a path breaking initiative, The Prime Minister has taken steps to introduce a power sharing grid amongst the SAARC countries that will ensure that the surplus power generated in one country is distributed to another country based on need.

India already has power downloading agreements with Bhutan and Bangladesh. India is expected to have a demand of 2 trillion units by Solar, wind and Hydro are major areas that are expected to witness major investments in a bid to shore up clean energy generation.

The government is targeting , mw of clean power generation by Gas based power projects have suffered in the last few years. In a relief to major gas based power plants the government plans to provide major relief to help revive 16, mw of power. Relief measures include lowering of interest rates and longer loan tenures.

Wind energy, a part of the clean energy plan of the government, has received a boost with the government planning to invite bids worth Rs 20, crore in the coming fiscal that will see private players add another 3, mw of clean energy generated from wind.

Investment in power transmission has lagged behind with several south based states suffering from power transmission congestion. The government plans to auction eight major power transmission projects with a cumulative investment of Rs 53, crore. One project will connect Chhattisgarh with Tamil Nadu through a 2, km long high capacity power evacuation link, costing Rs 26, crore. Railways Reforming the Indian Railways is high on the new government's agenda.

The railways has suffered from political interference and lack of adequate investment for years that has resulted in the entire infrastructure becoming strained to maintain, besides safety and efficiency standards falling to dangerous levels.

The railways, on account of passenger operations, has been losing Rs 25, crore annually and almost all arms of the railways require a massive inflow of investment if it has to keep a pace with the growth and achieve optimum operational efficiency. The Railway Budget for has the largest budget outlay at Rs 65, crore. The plan outlay under budgetary sources is placed at Rs 47, crore which is Rs 9, crore higher than the previous year. Railway Safety Fund has an allocation of Rs 2, crore. Green initiatives by the railways include utilizing station roof tops of stations, buildings and land under the railways for solar power generation to meet internal needs-to be executed under the PPP mode.

Airport modernization The new government is keen to modernize Civil Aviation and is keen to push development of short interstate air connectivity besides making India a major aviation hub.

However, the new government has not been able to take bold steps to open up the sector and is still grappling with policy issues related to privatization and operations.

Airport modernization started under the UPA II is being further consolidated, after the new government took over this year. Six airports have been identified for modernization, of which Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Lucknow and Guwahati will be developed under PPP mode and Kolkata and Chennai will be under fee-based management contracts from private operators.

The private aviation space continues to grow at a rapid pace with aircraft acquisition continuing by all operators and new ones like Air Asia and Vistara in the process of taking advantage of the opening up of civil aviation in India. The Directorate General of Civil Aviation has come under much criticism on account of safety downgrade by the US based FAA and this continues to remain a matter of concern, as India races ahead with expansion of its skies.

National Highways Infrastructure The Indian road network covers over 33 lakh kms and is the second largest in the world. While the National Highways are just 1. This reflects the growth potential for the same in India and by extension the massive investment required for the planned expansion of national and state highways.

The National Highways Authority is responsible for managing a network of roads and highways that cover 92, kms. The UPA II faltered after initiating a massive expansion of the highways and the last few years saw various projects being stalled on account of land acquisition issues and funding. The new government is now taking steps to speed up the Land Acquisition Law reform to ensure that the highway expansion can get back on to the fast track mode.

Concession period has been extended to 30 years. In BOT projects, entrepreneurs will be permitted to collect and retain toll. Furthermore, the concessionaire will be permitted to import modern high capacity equipment for highway construction. The government has now decided to undertake land acquisition and utility removal prior to handing over Right of Way to the concessionaire.

This has also been one of the major reasons for delay in project execution.

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Coal and Mining sector Under the UPA II, Coal mine allocation to the private sector came under legal scrutiny and the new government has scrapped the earlier allocation of coal blocks out of a total allotted coal blocks and has announced that the cancelled blocks will be auctioned off in a fair and transparent manner.

After suffering a slowdown in coal mining operations, the mining operations are now being given a boost.

Of this, the total coal dispatched to the power sector has been The power sector has reached critical levels of coal stock on account of slowdown in domestic mining. Similarly, iron ore mining had also come under criticism and mining operations suffered a setback. In addition, with international coal and iron ore demands suffering a decline, especially on account of slackening of demand from China, the international commodity prices have been steadily declining.


Defence The Defence forces continue the process of modernization in keeping with the perceived threats in the sub-continent and the Indian Ocean Region. India has had a long and hostile neighborhood that has kept the defence forces in a high state of alert.

With changing geo-political equations in the post-cold war era, new political-economic-military equations have emerged.