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Canal building was an important engineering work during the early phases of the Industrial Revolution.
He was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours, and lighthouses. He was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist.
Using a model water wheel, Smeaton conducted experiments for seven years, determining ways to increase efficiency. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse —59 where he pioneered the use of ' hydraulic lime ' a form of mortar which will set under water and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse. He is important in the history, rediscovery of, and development of modern cement , because he identified the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime; work which led ultimately to the invention of Portland cement.
Applied science lead to the development of the steam engine. The sequence of events began with the invention the barometer and the measurement of atmospheric pressure by Evangelista Torricelli in , demonstration of the force of atmospheric pressure by Otto von Guericke using the Magdeburg hemispheres in , laboratory experiments by Denis Papin , who built experimental model steam engines and demonstrated the use of a piston, which he published in Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester published a book of inventions containing a method for raising waters similar to a coffee percolator.
Samuel Morland , a mathematician and inventor who worked on pumps, left notes at the Vauxhall Ordinance Office on a steam pump design that Thomas Savery read. The higher furnace temperatures made possible with steam powered blast allowed for the use of more lime in blast furnaces , which enabled the transition from charcoal to coke.
The puddling process , patented by Henry Cort in produced large scale quantities of wrought iron. Hot blast , patented by James Beaumont Neilson in , greatly lowered the amount of fuel needed to smelt iron. With the development of the high pressure steam engine, the power to weight ratio of steam engines made practical steamboats and locomotives possible. One of the most famous engineers of the mid 19th century was Isambard Kingdom Brunel , who built railroads, dockyards and steamships.
Offshore platform, Gulf of Mexico The Industrial Revolution created a demand for machinery with metal parts, which led to the development of several machine tools. Boring cast iron cylinders with precision was not possible until John Wilkinson invented his boring machine , which is considered the first machine tool.
Health: Hard water when used for drinking for long period can lead to stomach disorders. Especially hard water contains magnesium sulphate can weaken the stomach permanently. Industrial: Advantages of hard water 1. Some people prefer the taste.
It helps to reduce heart disease. Some brewers prefer using hard water for making beer. Calcium ions in the water are good for children's teeth and bones. A coating of lime scale inside copper pipes, or especially old lead pipes, stops poisonous salts dissolving Softening of water Hard water is a problem for millions of households across the country.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content. Due to the minerals present in hard water, the sides of pipe lines are clogged. Over a period of time, deposits and build up prevent water to flow like it should, pipes becomes too small to allow fast passage of water.
Once the holes become smaller, the pressure in pipes increases so much that there is a high risk of the lines deteriorating or may burst.
Softened water still contains all the natural minerals that we need. It is only deprived off its calcium and magnesium contents, and some sodium is added during the softening process.
Water softening is the reduction of the concentration of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water. These "hardness ions" can cause a variety of undesired effects including interfering with the action of soaps, the buildup of lime scale, which can foul plumbing, and galvanic corrosion.
Conventional water-softening appliances intended for household use depend on an ion-exchange resin in which hardness ions are exchanged for sodium ions. Water softening may be desirable where the source of water is hard. Water softening is very essential since hard water is unsuitable for domestic as well as industrial use. Water can be made soft by external as well internal treatment. To remove hardness from water, three methods are used on a large scale: 1 Lime-Soda process 2 Zeolite process or Permutit process 3 De-mineralization process or Ion-exchange process Principle It is the process by which hard water is converted to soft water by removing inorganic impurities in it as an insoluble precipitate.
Hard water can be of two types, temporary and permanent. Lime calcium hydroxide and washing soda mixture. Ammonia Sodium hydroxide Sodium tetraborate Borax Trisodium phosphate Permanent hard water contains sulphates and chlorides of calcium or magnesium.
Boiling the water does not remove them. Only addition of the substances listed above will remove them and make the water soft. Lime-Soda process Lime-Soda is a process used in water treatment to remove hardness from water. This process is now obsolete but was very useful for the treatment of large volumes of hard water. Chemical precipitation is one of the more common methods used to soften water. Lime is used to remove the chemicals that cause the carbonate hardness.
Soda ash is used to remove the chemicals that cause the non-carbonate hardness. When calcium hardness is removed in a chemical softener, it is precipitated as calcium carbonate When CaCO3.
This hardness level is desirable to prevent corrosion problems associated with water being too soft and having little or no hardness ions. Reactions: What are the chemical reactions that happen with lime addition? Hardness species CO2.
What are the chemical reactions with soda ash? For each molecule of magnesium bicarbonate hardness removed, two molecules of lime are used. Each molecule of non-carbonate magnesium hardness requires one molecule of lime plus one molecule of soda ash.
Lime soda processes are of two types: a Cold lime soda process b Hot lime soda process a. Cold lime soda process: In this process, calculated quantities of lime and soda are mixed with water at room temperature. The precipitate formed at room temperature is finely divided and does not settle down easily. They cannot be easily filtered so, it is essential to add a small quantity of coagulant which hydrolysis to give flocculent and gelatinous precipitate of aluminium hydroxide, thus it entraps the fine precipitate.
There are two kind of softeners used for softening water by this process. Hot lime soda process: In this process, water is treated with chemicals at a temperature of C. The softeners used are of intermittent type or continuous type.
Advantages of Hot lime soda process: i They are more rapid in operation. The time taken for completion is 15 minutes and several hours for hot and cold lime soda processes respectively.
This increases the rate of aggregation of the particle. Hence, both the setting rates and filtration rates are increased. Thus the softening capacity of the hot process is several times higher than the cold process.
Advantages of Lime-soda Process: i It is very economical. Disadvantages of Lime-soda process: i It requires careful operation and skilled supervision for economical and efficient softening. Zeolite process or Permutit process Permutit is also known as Zeolite.
They are capable of exchanging ions reversibly. In short it is written as Na2-P or Na2-Z. For softening of water by this method, hard water is percolated at a specified rate through a bed of zeolite kept in a cylinder.
While the outgoing water contains sodium salts. These fuel cells use a solution of potassium hydroxide in water as the electrolyte and can use a variety of non-precious metals as a catalyst at the anode and cathode. The reaction at the anode and cathode is shown below: Water is produced twice as fast as is been consumed hence the need to remove excess water to avoid dilution of the electrolyte.
Advantages 1. Advantages offered by AFC include improved cathode performance, non-precious metal such as nickel can be used as catalyst and extremely inexpensive electrolyte. AFCs' high performance is due to the rate at which chemical reactions take place in the cell. They have also demonstrated efficiencies near 60 percent in space applications. Disadvantages 1. The disadvantage of this fuel cell type is that it is easily poisoned by carbon dioxide CO2. In fact, even the small amount of CO2 in the air can affect this cell's operation, making it necessary to purify both the hydrogen and oxygen used in the cell.
This purification process is costly. Susceptibility to poisoning also affects the cell's lifetime the amount of time before it must be replaced , further adding to cost.
Cost is less of a factor for remote locations such as space or under the sea.
However, to effectively compete in most mainstream commercial markets, these fuel cells will have to become more costeffective. AFC stacks have been shown to maintain sufficiently stable operation for more than 8, operating hours. To be economically viable in large-scale utility applications, these fuel cells need to [ 2 0 1 2 - 1 3 O n w a r d s : T M C T e x t b o o k o n E C ] Page 15 reach operating times exceeding 40, hours, something that has not yet been achieved due to material durability issues.
This is possibly the most significant obstacle in commercializing this fuel cell technology. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell PAFC Phosphoric acid fuel cells use liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolytethe acid is contained in a Teflonbonded silicon carbide matrixand porous carbon electrodes containing a platinum catalyst.
The chemical reactions that take place in the cell are shown in the diagram to the right. Reactions Phosphorous acid fuel cell uses liquid H3PO4 as electrolyte. The electrolyte is embedded in SiC matrix between two porous graphite electrodes coated with a platinum catalyst.
The technology of PAFC is relatively matured but current research interest is how to make it cost competitive with conventional power technologies. Advantages The phosphoric acid fuel cell PAFC is considered the "first generation" of modern fuel cells.
It is one of the most mature cell types and the first to be used commercially, with over units currently in use. This type of fuel cell is typically used for stationary power generation, but some PAFCs have been used to power large vehicles such as city buses.
PAFCs are more tolerant of impurities in fossil fuels that have been reformed into hydrogen than PEM cells, which are easily "poisoned" by carbon monoxidecarbon monoxide binds to the platinum catalyst at the anode, decreasing the fuel cell's efficiency. They are 85 percent efficient when used for the co-generation of electricity and heat, but less efficient at generating electricity alone 37 to 42 percent.
This is only slightly more efficient than combustion-based power plants, which typically operate at 33 to 35 percent efficiency. Disadvantages PAFCs are also less powerful than other fuel cells, given the same weight and volume.
As a result, these fuel cells are typically large and heavy. PAFCs are also expensive. MCFCs are high-temperature fuel cells that use an electrolyte composed of a molten carbonate salt mixture suspended in a porous, chemically inert ceramic lithium aluminum oxide LiAlO2 matrix. Since they operate at extremely high temperatures of C roughly 1,F and above, non-precious metals can be used as catalysts at the anode and cathode, reducing costs. The mobile charge carrier is carbonate ion, CO and the reaction at the anode and cathode is as follows: There is the need for recirculation of CO2 because the CO2 is produced at the anode to be consumed at the cathode.
It does not suffer from CO poisoning like most other fuel cell, the CO is actually a fuel. It enjoys fuel flexibility as hydrogen, methane and simple alcohol could be used as fuel. Advantages One of its advantage is the corrosive nature of the molten electrolyte. MCFC is most suitable for stationary, continuous power application. Molten carbonate fuel cells can reach efficiencies approaching 60 percent, considerably higher than the percent efficiencies of a phosphoric acid fuel cell plant.
When the waste heat is captured and used, overall fuel efficiencies can be as high as 85 percent. Unlike alkaline, phosphoric acid, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, MCFCs don't require an external reformer to convert more energy-dense fuels to hydrogen.
Due to the high temperatures at which MCFCs operate, these fuels are converted to hydrogen within the fuel cell itself by a process called internal reforming, which also reduces cost. Disadvantages Molten carbonate fuel cells are not prone to carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide "poisoning" they can even use carbon oxides as fuelmaking them more attractive for fueling with gases made from coal.
This book explains the basic modes of heat transfer namely conduction, convection and radiation. Chemistry for Chemical Engineers provides background in the topics of mass and energy balances, which are distinct to chemical engineering.
This book covers the transport of momentum, heat, and mass in non-equilibrium systems. This book was written for students and young professionals in chemistry, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and economics.
This Heat Transfer exercise book contains examples and full solutions to go with the Heat Transfer theory book. The fundamentals of reaction engineering book covers the basic elements of chemical reactor design. This text, which contains worked examples, is intended for use as an elective undergraduate paper for 3rd or 4th year engineering students.
Partial differential equations form tools for modelling, predicting and understanding our world. Chemical Engineering Vocabulary was written for students and young professionals in chemistry, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and economics.
This e-book book aimed at undergraduates and practitioners who have an interest in food process engineering. What do mass diffusion, thermal conduction, viscosity, permeability, and electrical conductance have in common? Combustion is a very important process, which is used for energy generation e. Discusses the role of enzymes in a broad range of industries.
This book describes the various filtration processes using membranes such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis.