Integration of alternative sources of energy pdf


 

Integration Of Alternative Sources Of Energy Pdf File. Integration_of_Alternative_Sources_of_Energy_pdf. Integration of Alternative Sources of Energy. Editor(s). Dr. Felix A. Farret B.E. in Electrical Engineering, nbafinals.info in Electrical Engineering, Ph.D. Integration of Alternative Sources of Energy. Felix A. Farret, M. Godoy Simoes. ISBN: Feb , Wiley-IEEE Press. pages. Select type: .

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Integration Of Alternative Sources Of Energy Pdf

Sustainable Biotechnology: Sources of Renewable Energy. Read more Integration of Green and Renewable Energy in Electric Power Systems · Read more. A unique electrical engineering approach to alternative sources of energy Unlike other books that deal with alternative sources of energy from a mechanical. PDF | Ireland relies on imports of fossil fuels for up to 83% of its energy needs Some of the alternative energy sources such as wind and wave are gaining .. Multi-Objective Single Stage SPV System Integrated to 3P4W.

The power available from the wind is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases up to the maximum output for the particular turbine. Typically, full load hours of wind turbines vary between 16 and 57 percent annually, but might be higher in particularly favorable offshore sites. Wind energy was the leading source of new capacity in Europe, the US and Canada, and the second largest in China. Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand, assuming all practical barriers needed were overcome. This would require wind turbines to be installed over large areas, particularly in areas of higher wind resources, such as offshore. There are many forms of water energy: Historically, hydroelectric power came from constructing large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs, which are still popular in developing countries. Small hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 50 MW of power. They are often used on small rivers or as a low-impact development on larger rivers. China is the largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world and has more than 45, small hydro installations. This style of generation may still produce a large amount of electricity, such as the Chief Joseph Dam on the Columbia river in the United States.

Extremely high temperature and pressure cause some rock to melt, which is commonly known as magma. Magma convects upward since it is lighter than the solid rock. In this form of Geothermal, a Geothermal Heat Pump and Ground-coupled heat exchanger are used together to move heat energy into the earth for cooling and out of the earth for heating on a varying seasonal basis. Low temperature Geothermal generally referred to as "GHP" is an increasingly important renewable technology because it both reduces total annual energy loads associated with heating and cooling, and it also flattens the electric demand curve eliminating the extreme summer and winter peak electric supply requirements.

It most often refers to plants or plant-derived materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today; [69] examples include forest residues — such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps —, yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste.

In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals , including biofuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus , switchgrass , hemp , corn , poplar , willow , sorghum , sugarcane , bamboo , [70] and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm palm oil. Plant energy is produced by crops specifically grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy.

Plant biomass can also be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of chemical treatments, and the resulting sugar can then be used as a first generation biofuel.

Integration of Alternative Sources of Energy

Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy such as methane gas or transportation fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Crops, such as corn and sugarcane, can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel, ethanol.

Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products such as vegetable oils and animal fats. Once harvested, it can be fermented to produce biofuels such as ethanol, butanol , and methane, as well as biodiesel and hydrogen. The biomass used for electricity generation varies by region. Forest by-products, such as wood residues, are common in the United States.

Agricultural waste is common in Mauritius sugar cane residue and Southeast Asia rice husks. Animal husbandry residues, such as poultry litter, are common in the United Kingdom.

The term covers solid , liquid , and gaseous fuels. Gaseous biofuels include biogas , landfill gas and synthetic gas.

Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. These include maize, sugarcane and, more recently, sweet sorghum. The latter crop is particularly suitable for growing in dryland conditions, and is being investigated by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics for its potential to provide fuel, along with food and animal feed, in arid parts of Asia and Africa.

Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions.

Integration of Alternative Sources of Energy

Bioethanol is widely used in the United States and in Brazil. The energy costs for producing bio-ethanol are almost equal to, the energy yields from bio-ethanol.

However, according to the European Environment Agency , biofuels do not address global warming concerns. It can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, or more commonly as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles.

Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. Biofuels provided 2. Pollutants such as sulphurous oxides SOx , nitrous oxides NOx , and particulate matter PM are produced from the combustion of biomass; the World Health Organisation estimates that 7 million premature deaths are caused each year by air pollution.

While integrating it into the wider energy system is feasible, it does lead to some additional challenges. In order for the energy system to remain stable, a set of measurements can be taken.

Renewable energy

The transport sector in the European Union participates with a share of Promoting the electrification in the transport sector as well as an electricity production based on RES would enable the achievement of these goals. Due to the intermitted electricity production of RES, the corresponding energy systems should include significant reserves in a form of conventional energy sources or significant capacities of energy storages.

It leads to an increase in the prices of electricity and the overall energy system and limits a wider distribution of RES. The increased use of electric vehicles EVs provides a significant capacity of the distributed battery chargers, being connected to the grid, for creating new possibilities to integrate RES in the power systems.

The study presented in [ 5 ] analysed the optimal investments and the scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in the electric vehicle driving schedules. The results of the study have shown that EVs can have a significant impact on a distributed energy resource investment, provided the payback periods are relatively small.

On the other hand, RES are proven to reduce electricity prices in the short term as it is shown in the case study carried out for Germany [ 6 ]. These two technologies can benefit from each other because EVs can provide storages of a huge capacity for the electricity produced by intermitted RES, with a quick response in a time of peak demand, while RES have proven to be cost effective and a clean way of the EV energy supply [ 7 ].

EVs can represent the containers of the electricity that might be connected to the grid in order to supply the power system during the lack of electricity production from RES, what is also known as a Vehicle-to-Grid V2G model [ 8 ].

Some previous studies have been performed which have considered the integration of RES into the power systems. Most of them indicated a need for future work and improvements. The program runs on an hourly basis and is suitable for the analysis of energy systems of regions and countries. In both cases, a higher percentage of RES would be considered if it were combined with some kinds of electricity storage such as EVs.

These authors suggested a future analysis of the new tariff models for the electricity prices. The importance of the role of storages in the power systems with high penetration of RES is emphasised in a doctoral thesis [ 15 ] in order to maintain the security of electricity supply and to have less negative impact on the environment.

Alternative energy - Wikipedia

Most of the previous studies indicated the need for energy storage, and one of the possible options is the integration of EVs into the power systems.

Using the EnergyPLAN program, including the V2G model, it was concluded that the V2G model provided a better stability of the energy supply than the existing capacity of conventional power plants. The author suggested a future analysis of different charging models for EVs in order to achieve an optimal integration of EVs into the power system. Previous studies [ 17 , 18 ] demonstrated that the distributed charging stations would provide a more stable and flexible power system, as well as a minor impact on peak loads.

The system should be regulated by way of optimum EV charging cycles in an order that the planned electricity production meets the needs of the demand in the best possible way. This paper was prepared as part of the i-RESEV project Information and Communication Technologies ICT —aided integration of electric vehicles into the energy systems with a high share of renewable energy sources which deals with the implementation of EVs into the power system with a high share of RES in the electricity production that is controlled by a widespread use of ICT tools [ 19 ].

The paper will not deal with communication technologies between the vehicles and the energy system, but will only use IT tools. The analyses provided in this work are done for the Dubrovnik region which includes the city of Dubrovnik with its surroundings.

Due to the significant potential of RES, such as solar radiation, hydro and wind energy, the computations should be carried out for a wider area of the Dubrovnik region. The supply side is obtained from RES including hydro, solar and wind potential of the region.

Basic hourly data of the electricity demand and RES potential were taken for the year The aim of this work is to predict the future capacity to meet the consumer needs, by using the known power consumption and the consumption calculations by , as well as the existing installed capacity of power generation.

The regulation of the power system is planned to be carried out using EVs as the energy storage. The data on the EVs are based on the gathered information on the number of vehicles in the region and their driving cycles for the year Year represented the reference year based on which the future energy plan till was derived for the Dubrovnik region power system, with the selected scenarios for the years , and

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