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Bloch born August 28, is a software engineer and a technology author, formerly employed at Sun Microsystems and Google. He is the author of the programming guide Effective Java , which won the Jolt Award, and is a co-author of two other Java books, Java Puzzlers and Java Concurrency in Practice Need to really understand the Java programming language; that is, really understand it?
Do you want to write code that is clear, correct, robust, and reusable? Look no further! The book you are holding will provide you with this and many other benefits you may not even know you were looking for. Become a more effective programmer. Any longer than that, and the user perceives the app as laggy. Estimated Input Latency tells us if we are hitting that threshold, and ideally, it should be below 50ms.
RAIL , a user-centric performance model. Because the browser needs time to paint the new frame to the screen, your code should finish executing before hitting the Be pessimistic in performance expectations, but be optimistic in interface design and use idle time wisely. Obviously, these targets apply to runtime performance, rather than loading performance. Although it might be very difficult to achieve, a good ultimate goal would be First Meaningful Paint under 1 second and a Speed Index value under The former is the earliest point after the main content has rendered where there is at least a 5-second window where the page is responsive.
The latter is the point where the page can be expected to always be responsive to input thanks, Philip Walton! We have two major constraints that effectively shape a reasonable target for speedy delivery of the content on the web.
We could also go beyond the bundle size budget though.
Tools such as Calibre , SpeedCurve and Bundlesize can help you keep your budgets in check, and can be integrated into your build process. Performance budgets should adapt depending on the network conditions for an average mobile device. Stick to your environment for building, be it Grunt, Gulp, Webpack, Parcel, or a combination of tools.
Among the build tools, Webpack seems to be the most established one, with literally hundreds of plugins available to optimize the size of your builds. Getting started with Webpack can be tough though. Both of them are great introductions for diving into Webpack. Webpack Fundamentals is a very comprehensive 4h course with Sean Larkin, released by FrontendMasters.
Webpack examples has hundreds of ready-to-use Webpack configurations, categorized by topic and purpose. Bonus: there is also a Webpack config configurator that generates a basic configuration file.
Use progressive enhancement as a default. Keeping progressive enhancement as the guiding principle of your front-end architecture and deployment is a safe bet. Design and build the core experience first, and then enhance the experience with advanced features for capable browsers, creating resilient experiences. If your website runs fast on a slow machine with a poor screen in a poor browser on a sub-optimal network, then it will only run faster on a fast machine with a good browser on a decent network.
Choose a strong performance baseline. With the performance bottlenecks moving away from the server to the client , as developers, we have to consider all of these unknowns in much more detail. The first render tends to warm up a bunch of lazily compiled code, which a larger tree can benefit from when it scales. The second render is basically an emulation of how code reuse on a page affects the performance characteristics as the page grows in complexity. Evaluate each framework and each dependency.
Now, not every project needs a framework and not every page of a single-page-application needs to load a framework. It might sound obvious but worth stating: some projects can also benefit benefit from removing an existing framework altogether.
Inian Parameshwaran has measured performance footprint of top 50 frameworks against First Contentful Paint — the time from navigation to the time when the browser renders the first bit of content from the DOM. You could examine your framework candidates and the proposed architecture, and study how most solutions out there perform, e. Baseline performance cost matters.
According to a study by Ankur Sethi , "your React application will never load faster than about 1. Your Angular app will always take at least 2. The users of your Vue app will need to wait at least 1 second before they can start using it. In exchange, your team gains maintainability and developer efficiency, of course. But this consideration needs to be deliberate. A good starting point is to choose a good default stack for your application. When building a web app, look into the PRPL pattern and application shell architecture.
The idea is quite straightforward: Push the minimal code needed to get interactive for the initial route to render quickly, then use service worker for caching and pre-caching resources and then lazy-load routes that you need, asynchronously.
PRPL stands for Pushing critical resource, Rendering initial route, Pre-caching remaining routes and Lazy-loading remaining routes on demand.
Have you optimized the performance of your APIs? APIs are communication channels for an application to expose data to internal and third-party applications via so-called endpoints.
If it is possible, mathematical operations take units into account and convert numbers before adding, subtracting or comparing them.
The result has leftmost explicitly stated unit type.
If the conversion is impossible or not meaningful, units are ignored. It would not be meaningful in most cases - a length multiplied by a length gives an area and css does not support specifying areas.
Less will operate on numbers as they are and assign explicitly stated unit type to the result. Functions Less provides a variety of functions which transform colors, manipulate strings and do maths.