the names and order of all the. booKs of the old and new testaments. The Books of the Old Testament. Genesis 1. Exodus Leviticus. Contents. I Old Testament. 1. 1. Book of Genesis. 12 Fourth Book of Kings 14 Second Book of Paralipomenon. Containing the Old and New Testaments The First Book of Moses, Called. Genesis .. And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem.
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Old Testament PDF's. Please note a few rules before or section you want from that page. Note: Books below are in order as they appear in the Old Testament. NOTE: To quickly navigate through the PDF document, use the bookmark You can also go to the beginning of a Bible book by clicking on the book in the list. Rev. ed. of: An introduction to the Old Testament / Raymond B. Dillard and Tremper Longman. c .. Dictionary of the Old Testament: Historical Books, IVP.
Book of 1 Samuel. Book of 2 Samuel. Book of 1 Kings. Book of 2 Kings. Book of 1 Chronicles. Book of 2 Chronicles. Book of Ezra. Book of Nehemiah. Book of Esther. Book of Job. Book of Psalms - 1 to Book of Psalms - 25 to Book of Psalms - 50 to Book of Psalms - 76 to Book of Psalms - Book of Proverbs.
Book of Ecclesiastes. We highlight the direction of this introduction and also some of the ways in which it differs from typical introductions. Theological Perspective In the first place, this introduction represents a Protestant and evangelical approach to the text.
This theological orientation will become immediately obvious in the discussion of various critical issues.
An evangelical doctrine of Scripture, however, does not answer all hermeneutical and interpretive questions, nor does it prevent us from learning from the tradition of historical criticism. Indeed, our introduction will provide example after example of dependence on the previous labors of scholars in both the evangelical and critical camps.
Among other things, it means treating the text as the church has received it. This introduction will depart from many of the well-entrenched conclusions of critical study, but it will do so with respect and not with rancor. We also concur with R. Gundry in his warning that evangelical scholarship sometimes simply uncritically follows in the steps of nonevangelical scholarship in order to find acceptance.
We will do our best to avoid that temptation. What does it mean to write an introduction from an evangelical perspective? While not denying the possibility of sources and the history of development of individual biblical books, the focus of this introduction will be squarely on the finished form of the canonical text.
This approach dovetails with recent interests in canonical theology and literary study of the Bible. However, the similarities, though welcome, are in some sense superficial, since most critical scholars who take a synchronic approach to the text merely bracket diachronic issues for the moment. Childs is a good example. He is careful never to disown typical historical criticism, while in his introduction and elsewhere he downplays these concerns in order to highlight the canonical role that the Bible plays in theology and the church.
His commentary on Exodus is a prime example of both his synchronic and diachronic concerns. They are both present but are not integrated with one another.
Scope Old Testament introduction is often subdivided into two areas: general and special introduction. General introduction treats topics that cover the whole testament: issues such as text and canon. Special introduction handles individual books. Our introduction will focus on special introduction and will proceed book by book. The order adopted will be that recognized by readers of the Bible in English. This differs from a number of introductions that follow the order of the Hebrew Bible in the Masoretic tradition for instance, the introductions by Young and Childs.
Most of the introductions mentioned above concentrate on historical questions surrounding a biblical book. This diachronic impulse crosses the conservative-critical line. Issues such as who wrote the book and when, the history of the development of the text, and the historical background of its contents are typical. These are important problems that will be treated here when necessary. Nonetheless, there are other equally important topics that help introduce the reader to the books of the Old Testament.
For instance, the literary genre, shape, and style of a book are essential keys to its proper interpretation. In addition, while a book of the Bible may have been produced separately from the rest of the canon, its meaning now resides in the context of the other books of the Old Testament and, for Christians, the New Testament. Three general topics constitute the discussion in each chapter: historical background, literary analysis, and theological message.
By now our readers may be asking how we intend to cover all of these topics while keeping the introduction to a reasonable length. We feel that it is important, especially if the book is to be used effectively in the classroom, to limit its size. One area that will get less coverage than is found in some other introductions is the history of research.
Except in some critical areas such as source analysis of the Pentateuch and even here the discussion is brief , we will feature only the high points in research and mention representative scholars rather than attempt an exhaustive delineation of past scholarship. We will, of course, be careful to give credit to those whose research has enlightened us.
Furthermore, the bibliographies at the beginning of each chapter refer to the works that can lead interested students to the history of research on any given book. In these bibliographies a premium is placed on books and articles written in English.
In part, this signals the end of the period when German scholarship was considered the vanguard in the field. But more significantly, it is part of our attempt to tailor these bibliographies for the English-speaking seminary student. Foreign language references are added to the bibliographies only when they are crucial for the discussion. The Major Topics As we said above, each chapter deals with the historical background, literary analysis, and theological message of the book under discussion.
The rest of this introductory chapter is devoted to explicating these three topics. What follows will allow readers to understand the orientation of the authors and will also allow the authors to refer back to these more general statements.
While these three topics are treated separately, it must be borne in mind that they function in a fully integrated manner in the biblical text Sternberg The history has theological meaning; the theology is based on historical events.
The texts that narrate this theological history or historicized theology are fittingly described as literary art. Howard Jr. Millard, J. Hoffmeier, and D.
Baker, eds. Provan, V. Long, and T. However, many understand the context to be literary only and then forget to read the Bible in its historical context, that is, the time period in which it was written and about which it narrates. One cause is the misunderstanding that describes the Bible as a timeless book.
The Bible is a timeless book only in the sense that it has an impact on every generation. The books of the Bible are also culture-bound. They were written for people in antiquity in a language and culture and with literary conventions that they understood.
As modern readers, we are distanced from the events that motivated the writings of the book. So even though the authority of the Bible is focused on the text and not on the events it narrates, it is still of utmost importance to read the Bible in the light of the time period from which it comes.
As such, the books of the Bible are careful to signal their relative age. Not every book is able to be dated with precision, but with few exceptions, each book informs the reader of its time of composition and describes events of a historical character. While ignorance of the historical context of the Bible threatens a correct understanding of the Bible, a second major danger confronts the reader.
This danger is the imposition of contemporary Western values on the historical writings of the Old Testament. It is thus of great importance that we not only describe the value of a historical approach to the Old Testament but also explore the nature of Old Testament historiography.
In the first place it is important to differentiate history and historiography. The first refers to the events that have taken place in the past, and the second, to writing about the events. To ask whether a book is historical or not is a complex question. It could refer to the intention of an author or to his success in achieving his intention. We must, however, go even further. A book may intend to be historical but not be a history textbook in the modern sense of the word.
In other words, history is different from a videotaped representation of the past in that it involves a historian, one who must interpret these events for his contemporary audience. Biblical history does have an antiquarian interest. However, the historicity of these acts is assumed in that they are stated and not proved.
The concern of the text is not to prove the history, but rather to impress the reader with the theological significance of these acts. History and theology are closely connected in the biblical text. Indeed, biblical history is not objective history—that is, uninterpreted history—but rather, history narrated with a divine purpose.
Moreover, we must explore the relationship between history and fiction, especially in light of the work of scholars such as Alter who tend to confuse the two. Is it important that the events actually took place in space and time in the past?
The phrasing of the question lures one to a simplistic answer. The destruction of Jericho has no direct bearing on our faith in Christ.
Nonetheless, indirectly the question is crucial. It certainly raises the issue of the epistemological basis of our faith. The Gospels present themselves as historical, though theological and artistic, accounts of the resurrection.
The book of Joshua, as an example of an Old Testament historical book, also presents itself as an account of the past acts of God to save his people. On what basis, besides arbitrary modern sensibilities and desires, would we accept the teaching of the Gospels and reject the teaching of Joshua? Thus, to suspect or reject the historical facticity of the razing of Jericho does indeed raise an obstacle to faith. At the most fundamental level, at the central core of Christian beliefs, is the fact that Christ did indeed die for the sins of humanity and then rose from the grave in a great victory over death.
History and the Supernatural A major issue as one approaches the subject of history and the Bible is the occurrence of supernatural events.
If an interpreter approaches the Old Testament as he would any other book—that is, if he perceives it as written from a human vantage point, about human affairs—skepticism is warranted. However, a second 2See the introductory chapters to Provan, Long, and Longman for an exten- sive discussion of these issues, and the rest of the volume for an attempt to write a history of Israel with sensitivity to the literary and theological concerns of the text.
This, of course, is where the dialogue between conservative and critical scholars gets stalled. Nonetheless, conservatives must guard against the tendency to overhistoricize the Bible. Legitimate genre questions must be addressed in the interpretation of certain books.
Why are there differences between the narration of the same events in Samuel—Kings over against Chronicles? What is the historical kernel of the Job story?
Is Jonah history or parable? These issues will be addressed in later chapters. The Challenge of Minimalism The s saw the rise of growing skepticism concerning the possibility that actual history could be reconstructed based on the Hebrew Bible. Such authors as Davies, Thompson, Whitelam, and Lemche, among others, have, despite their differences, come to be regarded as a school of thought that is commonly referred to as minimalism, after their conclusion that a minimum of historical memory may be found in the text.
The minimalists will even cast doubt on the scant direct evidence that we do have the Merneptah Stela, the David inscription, and so forth. It appears that the minimalists are intent on undermining the text as reliable history.
Instead, they propose what they think is a more objective way of reconstructing the history of Palestine, namely, archaeology, ignoring the obvious hermeneutical and ideological problems inherent in that discipline see below.
The wholesale skepticism of the minimalist is hardly justified and has received significant critique see Provan; Provan, Long, and Longman.
Even so, their critique can lead to a more sophisticated view of the nature of biblical historiography, a subject to which we now turn our attention.
The Nature of Biblical Historiography Biblical history is not an objective reporting of purely human events. No history can tell everything about its subject. Thus all history writing involves selectivity. What will be included and what excluded?
But selectivity is not only a necessity of space but also a part of the function and intention of the historiographer. The biblical historian is not interested in every aspect of the past but focuses on the community of Israel often as represented by its king. These issues will be addressed in the following chapters as we study specific books, but we can illustrate our point quickly, though not exhaustively, by comparing Samuel-Kings and Chronicles.
Samuel-Kings emphasizes the sins of the kings of both Israel and Judah, particularly their rejection of the law of centralization. There is also an emphasis in reporting on the temple. This trait is closely connected to the previous one. Not all acts of God, not everything that occurred to Israel, was equally important to the biblical historians. Some events are emphasized over others. Thus emphasis often supports the intention of the book in a way similar to that of the principle of selectivity.
For instance, the emphasis on the temple in Chronicles in contrast to Samuel-Kings arises, in part at least, because of the fact that the temple was being rebuilt at the time. Thus through the use of emphasis and by drawing analogies with the past, the Chronicler shows the continuity between the people of God at the end of the period of the Old Testament and the people of God at the time of Moses and David.
Of the many cities that were overrun at the time of the conquest, two stand out in the narrative in terms of emphasis: Jericho and Ai. See also: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon , Development of the Old Testament canon , Septuagint , and Books of the Latin Vulgate The interrelationship between various significant ancient manuscripts of the Old Testament, according to the Encyclopaedia Biblica Some manuscripts are identified by their siglum.
LXX here denotes the original Septuagint. The process by which scriptures became canons and Bibles was a long one, and its complexities account for the many different Old Testaments which exist today. Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh , identifies the Old Testament as "a collection of authoritative texts of apparently divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing.