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Aim High 2 Studen't Book - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Aim High Level 1: Workbook: Aim High Level 1 Workbook & CD-ROM 1 [NA] on nbafinals.info Author interviews, book reviews, editors' picks, and more. Paperback; Publisher: Oxford University Press (August 12, ); Language: English. Aim High 4. The secondary course for class, homework, and exam success; Aim High is a six-level course that takes students from A2 to C1+, developing.
Ethical conduct is justified by reasons that go beyond prudence to "something bigger than the individual", addressing a larger audience. Singer thinks this going-beyond identifies moral reasons as "somehow universal", specifically in the injunction to 'love thy neighbour as thyself', interpreted by him as demanding that one give the same weight to the interests of others as one gives to one's own interests.
This universalising step, which Singer traces from Kant to Hare,  is crucial and sets him apart from those moral theorists, from Hobbes to David Gauthier , who tie morality to prudence. Universalisation leads directly to utilitarianism, Singer argues, on the strength of the thought that one's own interests cannot count for more than the interests of others.
Taking these into account, one must weigh them up and adopt the course of action that is most likely to maximise the interests of those affected; utilitarianism has been arrived at. Singer's universalising step applies to interests without reference to who has them, whereas a Kantian's applies to the judgments of rational agents in Kant's kingdom of ends, or Rawls 's Original Position, etc.
Singer regards Kantian universalisation as unjust to animals. Effective altruism and world poverty[ edit ] Main article: Effective altruism Singer at an effective altruism conference in Melbourne in Singer's ideas have contributed to the rise of effective altruism. While Singer has previously written at length about the moral imperative to reduce poverty and eliminate the suffering of nonhuman animals, particularly in the meat industry , he writes about how the effective altruism movement is doing these things more effectively in his book, The Most Good You Can Do.
He is a board member of Animal Charity Evaluators, a charity evaluator used by many members of the effective altruism community which recommends the most cost-effective animal advocacy charities and interventions. TLYCS was founded after Singer released his eponymous book , in which he argues more generally in favour of giving to charities that help to end global poverty.
In particular, he expands upon some of the arguments made in his essay " Famine, Affluence, and Morality ", in which he posits that citizens of rich nations are morally obligated to give at least some of their disposable income to charities that help the global poor. He supports this using the drowning child analogy, which states that most people would rescue a drowning child from a pond, even if it meant that their expensive clothes were ruined, so we clearly value a human life more than the value of our material possessions.
As a result, we should take a significant portion of the money that we spend on our possessions and instead donate it to charity. Published in , Animal Liberation  has been cited as a formative influence on leaders of the modern animal liberation movement.
There are far more differences between a great ape and an oyster, for example, than between a human and a great ape, and yet the former two are lumped together as "animals", whereas we are considered "human" in a way that supposedly differentiates us from all other "animals.
Ryder to describe the practice of privileging humans over other animals, and therefore argues in favour of the equal consideration of interests of all sentient beings. Singer describes himself as a flexible vegan. He writes, "That is, I'm vegan when it's not too difficult to be vegan, but I'm not rigid about this, if I'm traveling for example.
In a Guardian article he titled, "Fish: the forgotten victims on our plate," Singer drew attention to the welfare of fish. He quoted author Alison Mood's startling statistics from a report she wrote, which was released on fishcount. Singer states that she "has put together what may well be the first-ever systematic estimate of the size of the annual global capture of wild fish.
It is, she calculates, in the order of one trillon, although it could be as high as 2. Singer has defended some of the actions of the Animal Liberation Front , such as the stealing of footage from Dr. Thomas Gennarelli's laboratory in May as shown in the documentary Unnecessary Fuss , but he has condemned other actions such as the use of explosives by some animal-rights activists and sees the freeing of captive animals as largely futile when they are easily replaced.
Singer himself adopted utilitarianism on the basis that people's preferences can be universalised, leading to a situation where one takes the "point of view of the universe" and "an impartial standpoint".
But in the Second Edition of Practical Ethics, he concedes that the question of why we should act morally "cannot be given an answer that will provide everyone with overwhelming reasons for acting morally". Additionally, he endorses Derek Parfit 's view that there are object-given reasons for action.
He says that evolutionary psychology suggests that humans naturally tend to be self-interested. He further argues that the evidence that selfish tendencies are natural must not be taken as evidence that selfishness is "right. Essentially, Singer claims that although humans possess selfish, competitive tendencies naturally, they have a substantial capacity for cooperation that also has been selected for during human evolution.
Singer's writing in Greater Good magazine, published by the Greater Good Science Center of the University of California, Berkeley , includes the interpretation of scientific research into the roots of compassion, altruism, and peaceful human relationships. Singer has criticized the United States for receiving "oil from countries run by dictators In paying dictators for their oil, we are in effect downloading stolen goods, and helping to keep people in poverty.
He is disappointed in U. He added that "[i]f we ever do find a better system, I'll be happy to call myself an anti-capitalist". Similarly, in his book Marx, Singer is sympathetic to Marx's criticism of capitalism, but is skeptical about whether a better system is likely to be created, writing: "Marx saw that capitalism is a wasteful, irrational system, a system which controls us when we should be controlling it.
That insight is still valid; but we can now see that the construction of a free and equal society is a more difficult task than Marx realised. In Practical Ethics, Singer argues in favour of abortion rights on the grounds that fetuses are neither rational nor self-aware, and can therefore hold no preferences. As a result, he argues that the preference of a mother to have an abortion automatically takes precedence.
In sum, Singer argues that a fetus lacks personhood. Similar to his argument for abortion rights, Singer argues that newborns lack the essential characteristics of personhood—"rationality, autonomy, and self-consciousness"  —and therefore "killing a newborn baby is never equivalent to killing a person, that is, a being who wants to go on living". The Classroom Presentation Tool brings easy-to-use digital features to the front of the classroom for heads-up lessons and the Online Practice available at levels 1 - 5 provides extra homework activities that can be automatically marked and that teachers can track.
Revision and self assessment sections help learners towards exam success and there is extensive testing material too. Other books in this series. Add to basket.
Level 4: Student's Book Paul Kelly. Level 6: Student's Book Tim Falla. Workbook Tim Falla. Teacher's Book Jane Hudson. Level 2: Workbook with Online Practice Tim Falla. Levels Test Generator Paul A.
Teacher's Pack Lewis Lansford.
Level 3: Level 1: Workbook with Online Practice Paul Kelly. Learn about new offers and get more deals by joining our newsletter.