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Application servers are connected to Database servers with thehelp of the local area network. However, a singleApplication server cannot handle the entire workload of the business logic on its own. Therefore, theworkload is distributed among multiple Application servers.
Application serverThe Message server component of the Application layer shown in Figure 1. This component also contains information aboutApplication servers and the distribution of load among these servers. It uses this information to select anappropriate server when a user sends a request for processing. The control of a program moves back and forth among the three layerswhen a user interacts with the program.
When the control of the program is in the Presentation layer, theprogram is ready to accept input from the user, and during this time the Application layer becomesinactive for the specific program. That is, any other application can use the Application layer during thistime. The procedure in which a new screen is presented before the user is known as a dialogstep.
Dialog steps are processed in the Application layer, as shown in Figure 1. The centraldatabase system has two components, DBMS and the database itself. Apart from this, the components of ABAP application programs, such as screendefinitions, menus, and function modules, are stored in a special section of the database, known asRepository, also known as Repository Objects.
Note Master data is the core data, which is essential to execute the business logic. Data about customers, products, employees, materials, and suppliers are examples of master data. Transaction data refers to information about an event in a business process, such as generating orders, invoices, and payments. Thesewindows are created by the Presentation layer. The Application layer consists of Application servers and Message servers. Application serverscommunicate with the Presentation and Database layers.
They also communicate with each otherthrough Message servers. Application servers consist of dispatchers and various work processes,discussed later in this chapter. Architecture of the application serverFigure 1.
An Application server contains multiple work processes that are used to run an application. Each work process uses two memory areas, the user context and the roll area.
The user context contains information regarding the user, and the roll area contains information about program execution. The requests received by Application servers are directed first to the dispatcher, which enrolls them to a dispatcher queue. The dispatcher then retrieves the requests from the queue on a first-in, first-out basis and allocates them to a free work process. All work processes running in an Application server use shared memory. This memory is used to save the contexts data related to the current state of a running program or buffer data.
Shared memory is also used to store various types of resources that a work process uses, such as programs and table content.
Each work process contains two software processors, the Screen processor andthe ABAP processor, and one database interface. A work process uses two special memory areaswhenever it processes a user request. This information consists of userauthorization as well as the names of currently running programs. The second memory area is known asthe roll area, which holds information about the current program pointer the location in which data of the The components of a work processAs shown in Figure 1.
From theprogramming point of view, user interaction is controlled by screens consisting of flow logic.
The screenprocessor executes screen flow logic and also controls a large part of the user interaction. The ABAP processor not only processes the logic but also communicates with the databaseinterface to establish a connection between a work process and a database. The screen processorinforms the ABAP processor of the module of the screen flow logic that will be processed.
Components of the database interfaceAs shown in Figure 1. The Database-specific layer Figure 1. Now, lets describe the various types of work processes. Types of Work ProcessesAll work processes can be categorized into five basic types on the basis of the tasks they perform: In the Application server, the type of the work process The dispatcher starts a work process, anddepending on the type of work process, assigns tasks to it.
This means that you can distribute workprocess types to optimize the use of resources in the Application servers. Types of work processesIn Figure 1. Table 1. Different types of work processes Open table as spreadsheetWork Description SettingsProcessDialog work Deals with requests to execute dialog The maximum response time of aprocess steps triggered by an active user. The default time for a dialog work process is seconds. If the dialog work process does not respond in this time period, it is terminated.
Update work Executes database update requests. An update work process parameter is used to control the is divided into two different modules, V1 number of update work processes of and V2. The V1 module describes critical V2 modules. The V2 module describes less critical secondary changes. These are pure statistical updates, for example, Different types of work processes Open table as spreadsheetWork Description SettingsProcess calculating the sum of the values of certain parameters.
V1 modules have higher priority than the V2 modules. Background Executes the programs that run without The number of background workwork the involvement of the user, such as processes can be changed byprocess client copy and client transfer. Usually, background work processes are used to perform jobs that take a long time to execute. Enqueue Handles the lock mechanism.
Spool work Passes sequential data flows on to The parameter to set the number ofprocess printers. Note In Table 1. To learn more about the Command field, refer to Chapter 3. Now, lets discuss how dialog steps are executed by a work process. Dispatching Dialog StepsThe dispatcher distributes the dialog steps among the various work processes on the Application server. Dispatching of dialog steps means navigating from one screen to another screen, where one screenaccepts a request from the user and the other screen displays the result of the request.
It is very important for a programmer in SAP to understand how dialog steps are processed anddispatched, because the process is completely different from the processing involved in executing anABAP program. The dynpro program consists of a screen and all the associated flow logic. It contains field definitions, screen layout, validation, and flow logic. A flow logic explains the sequence in which the screens are processed.
A set of dialog steps make up a transaction. Often, the number of users logged on to an ABAP Application server is many times greater than thenumber of available work processes. In addition, each user can access several applications at a time. Inthis scenario, the dispatcher performs the important task of distributing all the dialog steps among thework processes on the ABAP Application server.
Dispatching dialog stepsFigure 1. The dispatcher receives a request to execute a dialogstep from User 1 and directs it to work process 1, which is free. Work process 1 addresses the context ofthe application program in shared memory , executes the dialog step, and becomes free again. Now, thedispatcher receives a request to execute a dialog step from User 2 and directs it to work process 1.
Workprocess 1 executes the dialog step in the same way that it did in the case of User 1. However, while workprocess 1 is in progress, the dispatcher receives another request from User 1 and directs it to workprocess 2 because work process 1 is not free.
After work processes 1 and 2 have finished processingtheir respective dialog steps, the dispatcher receives yet another request from User 1 and directs it towork process 1, which is now free. When work process 1 is in progress, the dispatcher receives anotherrequest from User 2 and directs it to work process 2, which is free. This process continues until all therequests of the users are processed. From the preceding example, we can conclude that a program assigns a single dialog step to a singlework process for execution.
The individual dialog steps of a program can be executed on different workprocesses, and the program context must be addressed for each new work process. Moreover, a workprocess can execute dialog steps of different programs from different users. An ABAP program is always processed by work processes, which require the user context for processing.
A user context represents the data specifically assigned to an SAP user. The information stored in theuser context can be changed by using the roll area of the memory management system in SAP. The memory managementsystem of SAP comprises the following three types of memory which can be assigned to a work processin SAP: It is located in the heap of the virtual address space of the work process. Roll area memory is used as the initial memory assigned to a user context.
Roll area memory is allocatedto a work process in two stages. However, if thismemory is already in use by the work process, additional memory is allocated in the second stage.
The area in the shared memory, which belongs to a user context, is then accessed. Note thatwhen the context of a work process changes, its data is copied from the local roll area to a commonresource called the roll file through the roll buffer a shared memory. As shown in Figure 1. A client-dependent table has its first field or column of the CLNT type. The length of this fieldis always of three characters, and by convention, this field is always named MANDT and contains the clientnumber as its content.
A client-independent table, on the other hand, does not have the CLNT type as itsfirst field. AnSAP script form is a template that simplifies the designing of business forms.
On the other hand, SAPSmart Forms is a tool used to print or send business forms through e-mail, the Internet, and faxing. Now, lets assume that a user generates two forms by using SAPscript forms with two different clientlogins, client and client In this case, any changes made in client will not be reflected in theform designed in client On the other hand, in the case of Smart Forms, any changes made to oneclient will be reflected in the other client as well.
SummaryThis chapter has explored the concept of SAP and its importance as leading business software. Presentation,Application, and Database, and the various components of the Application server, such as workprocesses, the dispatcher, and the gateway.
In addition to these topics, the text has explored memorymanagement in SAP. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on the client dependency feature ofSAP. Chapter 2: This process ofverifying the users based on the login names and passwords is called user authentication.
However, youcan change the password afterwards for security purposes. This screen also allows youto perform various activities related to the SAP logon process. For example, you can add and configureSAP servers that you need to connect to during the logon process. While creating these shortcuts, you can specifythe logon settings for these functions. You also explore how to create and manage shortcuts, which facilitate you to access a transactionscreen, report, or a system command directly in the SAP system.
Figure 2. The SAP logon screen 2. Note Notice that as you enter the password, asterisks appear in the field rather than the characters that you type.
As a security measure, the system does not display the value entered in the Password field. Enter the values in all the fields of the SAP screen; for instance, we have entered the client ID as , user name as KDT, and the password as sapmac, as shown in Figure 2.
However, before starting to work in this screen, you need to understand that theSAP Logon screen see Figure 2. It has to be noted that the changes done on the SAP Logon are not reflected at the frontend; they affect only the internal processing of the SAP system.
Now, lets discuss each operation in detail, one by one. You can add a single instance of aserver as well as a group of servers in this list. Perform the following steps to add a single server: In our case, only asingle instance of the server is displayed. Note that in the case of multiple servers, the first entry in the listappears as selected by default. Select the server that you want to add and click the Next button see Figure 2.
A screen that accepts the system connection parameters appears, as shown in Figure 2. In this case, we have selected the Custom Application Server option. Showing system connection parametersIn addition, the System Connection Parameters group box contains the following fields: It is an optional field.
Enter the values in all the fields of the System Connection Parameters group box. Click the Next button see Figure 2. Click the Finish button to complete the process see Figure 2. The choose network settings screenFigure 2.
Showing the new server entry Modifying the EntryIn the SAP Logon screen, you can modify the configuration settings of an existing SAP server entry,such the description and the address of the server. Perform the following steps to modify theconfiguration settings of an SAP server: Select an SAP server whose properties you want to change.
Click the Change Item button see Figure 2. The System Entry Properties dialog box appears Figure 2. Click the OK button see Figure 2. Showing the modified description Deleting the EntryPerform the following steps to delete an item from the servers list: Select the SAP server that you want to delete. Click the Delete Item button see Figure 2.
Click the Yes button see Figure 2. Afer the shortcuts are created, they appear as regular icons on the desktop of your computer. The basic requirements to create an SAP shortcut are as follows: Right-click anywhere on the desktop. A context menu appears. Now, lets edit the properties of the shortcut to the SAP Logon file. Enter a title in the Title field. In Figure 2. In the Type field, select the type of shortcut from the following options: Enter a transaction command for instance, se38 in the Transaction field, as shown in Figure 2.
Now, enter the client number in the Client field, say, see Figure 2. The Password field is deactivated for security reasons. This field can be activated by administrators only. Finally, click the OK button and the desired shortcut is placed on your desktop. Open the screen in which you want to create an SAP shortcut.
In this case, we have opened the initial screen of Screen Painter by using the SE51 transaction code , as shown in Figure 2. Click the Customize Local Layout icon on the standard toolbar and then select the Create Shortcut option, as shown in Figure 2. Initial screen of screen painterFigure 2. You can also modify the values specified in these fields.
Here, we have modified the SystemDescription field. Modifying the system description field 3. Click the Next button. The next screen appears, as shown in Figure 2.
Click the Finish button. Click the OK button, as shown in Figure 2. Showing the properties of the new shortcutFigure 2. The Shortcuts tab of the SAP Logonscreen allows us to create, edit, or delete a shortcut with the help of the following buttons: The user can log on to an SAP system in the following ways: Note You can add already created SAP shortcuts present on your desktop to the shortcuts list just by dragging and dropping their icons in the SAP Logon screen.
Click the New Item button, as shown in Figure 2. The shortcuts tabFigure 2. There fore, on clicking the Next button, you get ascreen similar to that shown in Figure 2. A new shortcut is displayed in the Shortcuts tab, as shown in Figure 2. Showing the new shortcutThe user can modify the properties of this shortcut by using the Change Item button or delete it by usingthe Delete Item button.
Note that to be able towork on an SAP system, the user must have an SAP user name and password provided by the systemadministrator. An SAP shortcut can be used in the following contexts: Multiple sessions can be started when the userhas to work on more than one task at a time. All these sessions screens of SAP can be kept active oropen simultaneously; consequently, the user saves time navigating from one screen to another.
Eachsession is independent of the others, that is, an operation performed on one session does not affect theother sessions. Note The system administrator specifies the maximum number of sessions up to 6 that can be opened at a single time. Now, lets see how to use an SAP shortcut, both with and without a session running.
A dialog box with the namecorresponding to the created shortcut appears. Perform the following steps to use a shortcut when an SAP session is not running: Double-click the SAP shortcut assigned to any specific screen.
The Menu Painter Shortcut dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 2. The screen painter dialog box 2. Enter the user name and password given by the system administrator in the User Name field and Password field, respectively.
In this case, the user name is KDT and the password is sapmac. However, for security reasons, the password is encrypted, as shown in Figure 2. To change or view your shortcut definition, right-click in the opened dialog box Figure 2. Click the Open option to view and the Editoption to make changes in the. Note If you have not entered the password, only the Edit option is activated. However, after you enter even the first character of the password, both the Open and Edit options are activated.
If an application is already running, a new SAP session is started; otherwise, thecurrent SAP session starts the task. The following are the ways to use a shortcut while an SAP session isrunning: For that, click the icon present at the top-left corner of the SAPLogon screen and select Options, as shown in Figure 2. Table 2. To use this option, the SAP Logon language file must be installed by the system administrator.
The default value is 10 seconds. The SAP logon screen needs to be restarted for the settings to be effective. EntryDisable System Edit Specifies whether you want to prevent logon entries from being changed.
FunctionsConfiguration Files Shows a list of configuration files. Selecting this check box enables the user to select the level of tracing. If the user selects level 2 or 3, an additional log file is generated that records all incoming data in an encrypted binary code.
This check box is activated only when level 2 or 3 is selected. Changing the PasswordInitially, the system administrator provides you with a password to log on to the SAP system. However, itis recommended to change your password when you log on for the first time for security purposes. Youcan even set the time interval after which you would like to change your SAP password. The SAP systemitself prompts you to change your password after the specified period of time.
Perform the following stepsto change the password: After entering the values in the required fields, click the New password button on the application toolbar, as shown in Figure 2. The SAP dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 2. Enter the new password in the New Password field and retype it in the Repeat Password field see Figure 2.
Click the Confirm icon to save your new password, as shown in Figure 2. Displaying the SAP dialog boxThe following are some rules and restrictions that one must follow while creating a password: Valid and invalid passwords Open table as spreadsheetValid Password Invalid Password6yuto Ap contains less than three characters Perform the following steps to log off of the SAP system: Click the Log off icon on the standard toolbar, as shown in Figure 2.
Clicking the log off iconIf there is any unsaved data, a dialog box appears, asking for confirmation, as shown in Figure 2. The log off dialog box 2. Click the Yes button if you want to log off without saving the unsaved data; otherwise, click the No button.
There are two other alternate methods to log off of the SAP system. One of them is by selecting the Logoff option from the System menu, as shown in Figure 2. Log off option on the system menuThe Log off dialog box appears see Figure 2. Logging off using the transaction codeThe SAP screen immediately disappears. You have also explored the stepsto open the initial screen of an SAP system and maintain the SAP logon information by adding, changing,and deleting the instances of the SAP server.
Dreamtech Press; edition Language: English ISBN Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Complete ABAP. Kiran Bandari.
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Iam learning ABAP and this book has become my buddy. It helped me to master the concepts. But you must have some basic knowledge in order to get more advantage from this book.
Ofcourse beginers also can learn, but without proper guidance ABAP is not gonna be easy. Good one. One person found this helpful. Nice book for beginners Good book. Page number mentioned in index and contents are wrong. Overall OK. But this is the only option for ABAP learning. Book cover page is destroyed. Page quality is so bad. Best book for begginers. See all 28 reviews. Pages with related products.
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