stored procedures supported by SQL Server and then delves into details. The chapter . SQL Server will allow user1 to execute the stored procedure. Typically used inside triggers, stored procedures, or stored functions. ○ Main Idea. ○. When we execute a query, a relation is returned. ○. It is stored in private . Stored Procedures. What Are They CREATE PROCEDURE new_customer( name text, address text). LANGUAGE plpgsql CREATE PROCEDURE convert_to_upper(INOUT string text). LANGUAGE plpgsql . LANGUAGE SQL. AS $$.
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This article is designed to tell you how to begin writing stored procedures. I am using Microsoft SQL Server , but these examples should work in any SQL. SQL Procedures, Triggers, and Functions on IBM DB2 for i Implementation of the SQL Persistent Stored Module (PSM) in DB2 for i is based on industry. Can be defined in a procedural SQL language, or in an external language. – SQL , SQL both specify a language for declaring functions and.
END block as in Example Click the Compile button to compile the procedure. If errors occur, correct the source code and try compiling again.
Compiling the procedure also saves any changes to the procedure. In the previous steps, you created a procedure. To find out which stored procedures or functions exist in your database, use the Object Browser.
In the object list, select Procedures or Functions , then click the name of the procedure or function you want to display. These stored schema level subprograms can be accessed from SQL.
Example is an example of a simple stored procedure that displays current date. When you create a procedure or function, you can specify parameters that are passed to the procedure or function when it is called or invoked. When executed, this procedure processes an employee ID and a bonus rate. It uses the Id to select the salary and commission percentage of the employee from the employees table.
If the salary is null, an exception is raised. If the employee does not receive a commission, the employee's salary is updated by the bonus rate; otherwise no update is made. For different methods to execute call stored subprograms, see Example By default, stored procedures and functions execute with the privileges of their owner, not their current user. Such definer's rights subprograms are bound to the schema in which they reside, allowing you to refer to objects in the same schema without qualifying their names.
For example, if schemas HR and OE both have a table called departments , a procedure owned by HR can refer to departments rather than the qualified HR. You can create one instance of the procedure, and many users can call it to access their own data because invoker's rights subprograms are not bound to a particular schema. This example is based on Example Example is an example of a function that returns a character string that contains the upper case last and first names of an employee.
The example also show how to run call the function. Example is an example of a stored function that returns the calculated salary ranking for a specific employee based on the current minimum and maximum salaries of employees in the same job category.
END block or from another subprogram or a package. When calling a stored procedure or function, you can write the actual parameters using the following type of notation:. Positional notation: You specify the same parameters in the same order as they are declared in the procedure. This notation is compact, but you must specify the parameters especially literals in the correct order. Named notation: You specify the name of each parameter and its value.
The order of the parameters is not significant. Mixed notation: You specify the first parameters with positional notation, then switch to named notation for the last parameters. Example shows how you can call the stored procedure in Example Click the name of the saved SQL that contains the procedure or function code that you want to edit. Modify the source code for the procedure or function. Click the Run button if you want to execute the procedure or function.
When you are finished, you can click the Save button to save the code for future use. Select Procedures or Functions in the object list, then click the subprogram you want to display. With the subprogram displayed, click Edit button to modify the subprogram code.
Click the Compile button to ensure your changes did raise any errors when executed. Compiling the subprogram also saves the changes. In the object list, select Procedures or Functions , then click the name of the procedure or function you want to drop. You can view existing packages and package bodies with the Object Browser page. These objects include packages, subprograms, and triggers.
Subprograms and packages are discussed in this section; triggers are discussed in Chapter 6, "Using Triggers". When writing packages, keep them general so they can be reused in future applications. Become familiar with the Oracle-supplied packages, and avoid writing packages that duplicate features already provided by Oracle.
Design and define package specifications before the package bodies.
Place in a specification only those parts that must be visible to calling programs. That way, other developers cannot build unsafe dependencies on your implementation details.
To reduce the need for recompiling when code is changed, place as few items as possible in a package specification. Changes to a package body do not require recompiling calling procedures. Changes to a package specification require Oracle Database XE to recompile every stored subprogram that references the package.
To create and run a package specification or body in the SQL Commands page:. Use the code in Example Click the Run button to create the package specification or body. If necessary, select highlight only the specific code for creating the package specification or body before clicking the Run button. Any comments outside the package or package body block are not legal in the SQL Commands page.
In the previous steps you created a package. For information about how to execute or call a subprogram in the package, see "Calling Procedures and Functions in Packages". You can use the Object Browser page to create packages.
This section explains how to create a package specification. In the Detail pane, select Package from the Create menu. In the Create Package page, select the Specification option and click Next. After entering the code for the package specification, click the Finish button.
Click the Body tab, then the Edit button to enter the source code for the package body. Click the Compile button to run the package. If errors are raised, correct the source code and try compiling again.
Compiling the package also saves any changes made to the package. In the previous steps, you created a package. To find out which packages and package bodies exist in your database, use the Object Browser. In the object list, select Packages then click the name of the package you want to display.
With the package specification displayed, click the Body tab to view the package body if it exists. The package specification provides the declaration of the subprograms. The package body provides the contents of the subprograms. The package body provides the contents of the subprograms in the package specification.
Note that the function result for employee is different from the result for Example For methods on calling subprograms in a package, see "Calling a Subprogram in a Package". Modify the source code for the package. Click the Run button if you want to execute the package.
Member Jun 0: Member 7-Mar 2: Member Nov Member Jul 0: Member Jun Member Mar 0: AnantPithadiya 1-Jan 0: Musheer Ali TM 6-Sep Vivek Johari 6-Sep Vivek Johari 9-Jun 6: Member 4-May Go to top. Rate this:. First Prev Next. Excellent Article Satyanand Bhardwaj Sep 1: Satyanand Bhardwaj.
Thanks a lot It's easy to understand.. Excellent Article Vivek Johari Nov Thanks for your valuable comments. Stored Procedure Member Jun 0: Member Stored Procedure Vivek Johari Nov Helpful Member 7-Mar 2: Concise and easy to comprehend.
Very helpful. Helpful Vivek Johari Nov Thanks Member Jul 0: I start with my first Procedure Thanks Vivek Johari Nov Thank Member Jul 0: Thank Vivek Johari Nov A row trigger runs once for each row affected by the triggering event. In a database trigger, you can reference the new and old values of changing rows by using the correlation names new and old. In the trigger-action block or CALL statement, column names must be prefixed with :new or :old.
The following are examples of calling Java stored procedures from a database trigger: Example , "Calling Java Stored Procedure from Database Trigger - II" Example Calling Java Stored Procedure from Database Trigger - I Assume you want to create a database trigger that uses the following Java class to log out-of-range salary increases: import java. Instead, the trigger will insert rows into the base tables. String, java. String return java. If any SQL statement inside the method violates any of the preceding rules, then you get an error at run time.
For example, assume that the executable for the following Java class is stored in Oracle Database: import java.