Chemical engineering—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Perry Institute of Chemical Engineers (Section 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying). Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook ABOUT THE EDITORS Don W. Green is Deane E. Ackers Distinguished Professor of Chemical and Petroleum. For More Books, softwares & tutorials Related to Chemical Engineering This version of SPE's Pet Chemical Engineers Handbook, Perry Vol nbafinals.info
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Handbook of civil engineering calculations / Tyler G. Hicks. p. cm book fills a long -existing need Handbook of Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists. PERRY'S CHEMICAL ENGINEERS' HANDBOOK SEVENTH EDITION McGraw- Hill New York San Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogotá Caracas Lisbon . Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook,. Eighth Edition. Don W. Green and Robert H. Perry,. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2, pages, $, Oct.
Perry Editor Don W. Green Deane E. Perry : editor, Don W. Includes index. ISBN alk. Chemical engineering—Handbooks, manuals, etc. Perry, Robert H. Green, Don W. Maloney, James O. Copyright renewed , by Robert H. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of , no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
This book cannot be re-exported from the country to which it is consigned by McGraw-Hill. The International Edition is not available in North America. When ordering this title, use ISBN The sponsoring editors for this book were Zoe Foundotos and Robert Esposito, the editing supervisor was Marc Campbell, and the production supervisor was Pamela A.
Printed and bound by R. Distillation—Principles and Design Procedures. Henley and Seader. Also heat is removed from a condenser at the top of the uid phases at essentially the same temperature and pressure for the column. The result is a vapor phase that becomes richer in light components as it passes up the column and a liquid phase that becomes richer in heavy compo- nents as it cascades downward. The overall separation achieved between the distillate and the bottoms depends primarily on the rela- tive volatilities of the components.
Distillation Design. Chemical Publishing. Mass Transfer Operations. Elements Columns. Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation.
Distillation Engineering. Each molecular species in the mixture to be mixtures. Part of this liquid is returned to the column as reflux to provide liquid overflow.
A typical tray-type continu- ous distillation column plus major external accessories is shown schematically in Fig. Multicomponent Mass Transfer. Conceptual Design of Distillation Systems. Distilla- McGraw-Hill. Vapor and liquid phases on a given tray approach thermal. Before Computers and A.
In the conventional distillation operation. Fair and Bolles. The Separation operations achieve their objective by the creation of two or notion of a column section is a useful concept for finding alternative more coexisting zones which differ in temperature. Separation Process Principles. Robinson and Gilliland.
The lighter lower-boiling temperature components tend to con- centrate in the vapor phase. Seader and Henley. Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes. Packings are also generally contained in a cylindrical shell between hold-down and support plates. Taylor and Krishna. Operations in Chemical Engineering. The column may be operated continuously or in batch mode depending on a number of factors such as scale and flexibility of operations and solids content of feed.
Vapor reaching the top of the column is cooled and con- densed to liquid in the overhead condenser. If the feed is introduced at one point along the column shell. Because of the difference in density between vapor and liquid phases.
This overall flow pattern in a distillation column provides counter- current contacting of vapor and liquid streams on all the trays through the column.
Trays are stacked one above the other and enclosed in a cylindrical shell to form a column. Fundamentals of Multicomponent Distillation. Van Winkle. The remainder of the overhead stream is withdrawn as distillate. This frequently results in a coexisting zones. In some cases only part of the vapor is condensed so that a vapor distillate can be withdrawn. Friday and Smith. In multiple-feed columns and in columns from tillation column with one feed.
Separation Processes. Various kinds of devices such as random or struc- tured packings and plates or trays are used to bring the two phases into intimate contact.
Liquid reaching the bottom of the column is partially vaporized in a heated reboiler to provide boil-up. Simplifications are necessary The simple and complex distillation operations just described all have to develop tractable models. A hypothetical column ration operations.
In addition to the batch rectifier required to accomplish a specified separation. This is needed so that thermodynamic phase equilibrium rela. The landmark concept of the equilibrium. This section deals pri- marily with equilibrium and rate-based models of distillation. The number of hypothetical equilibrium stages required is then Complex distillation operations that offer higher thermodynamic effi. Section 14 covers equipment design. Many of the concepts and methods energy input.
The transfer processes taking place in an actual distillation column are a complicated interplay between the thermodynamic phase equilib. Vapor leaving the top of the column lation column into three major steps: Alter- Batch distillation is preferred for small feed flows or seasonal pro.
Much of the third step is eliminated if a rate-based model is used. Use of the equilibrium-stage concept separates the design of a distil- umn where the separation occurs. Under normal operation. Ohe Vapor-Liquid Equi. Supplement II. It is flash may be established by the use of heat exchangers. One or with reflux produced by an overhead partial condenser.
Walas azeotropic mixtures will at best yield the azeotrope and one essentially Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering. Gmehling and Onken [Vapor-Liquid Equilib. Numerous other multistaged configurations are possible. This section also includes a treatment of distillation-type separa- tion.
In a com- If the recovery of only one component is required rather than a mon mode. More acetate. If azeotrope is taken overhead. Two systems of this type. Figure shows that chloroform is less volatile than acetone a fixed pressure P or over a range of pressure for a fixed temperature.
This is the case in Figs. A ference sufficiently to reduce the stage requirement to a reasonable common example is the separation of light gases such as hydrogen and number. An alternative to extractive distillation is azeotropic distillation.
Depending on the original condition reflux to the top stage is used to minimize the MSA content in the dis- of the feed. For application to distillation a nearly isobaric process binary- This subsection summarizes and presents examples of phase equi. By contrast. Non-azeotrope-forming mixtures such as benzene Supplement I. For a binary mixture. The distillate and bottoms products obtained depend upon Extensive databases of phase equilibrium mum-boiling azeotrope is formed as with the chloroform-acetone mix- measurements are readily available in most process simulators ture in Fig.
In fact. Above these concentrations. Some product vapor and liquid phases. For example. In either case. If the tion is sometimes used to steam-strip sour water containing NH3. The choice depends on the ease of partially reboiling the to here as distillation-type separations because they have much in bottoms or of recovering and recycling the stripping agent.
Failure of equipment to perform at spec. Many of these simulators also provide analysis of distillation columns. The desired temperature and pressure of a leaves in the bottoms. Such a configura- overhead vapor or of recovering and recycling the absorbent. In some binary systems. Such mixtures extensive presentations and bibliographies of such data may be found are known as azeotropic mixtures.
The absorption or stripping in a single section of stages may be sufficient. Section 14 also presents details of that subject as and stripping. A minimum-boiling heterogeneous ture. Representation of multicomponent vapor-liquid equi- approach pure acetone and the bottoms could approach the maximum. Kagaku Kogaku. K component system. At liquid values vapor-liquid equilibrium ratios. Distillation Equilibrium Data.
Total pressure. For mixtures containing more than two species. To convert degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit. To convert kilopascals to pounds-force per square inch.
The easiest to use are the DePriester charts [Chem.. Staged Cascades in Chemical Processing. Englewood minimum-boiling azeotrope mixtures of ethyl acetate and ethanol at Rarely is distillation used on a large scale if the relative volatility is less than 1. Staged Cascades FIG. When a single pressure-volume-tempera- 0 0. This behavior is not always typical of more nonideal sys- 1-atm total pressure.
The critical loci for the ternary mixtures vary linearly. McWilliams [Chem. Useful extensions of the conver- gence pressure concept to more varied mixtures include the nomo- graphs of Winn [Chem.
Regression equations and coefficients for various versions of the GPA conver- gence pressure charts are available from the GPA. This method is illustrated in the left A trial-and-error procedure is required with any K value correlation half of Fig. The Kellogg charts. An alternative Li qu measure of composition is the convergence pressure of the system.
Two major graphical correlations based on convergence pressure as the third parameter besides temperature and pressure are the charts published by the Gas Processors Association GPA. Technical Data Book—Petroleum Refining. MWK Equilibrium Constants. The light component in this pseudobinary is the lightest species n-hexane. The behavior of a complex mixture Liq of hydrocarbons for a convergence pressure of Hadden and Grayson op.
Associ- that takes into account the effect of composition. Va The Kellogg and DePriester charts and their subsequent extensions po Azeotrope and generalizations use the molar average boiling points of the liquid r and vapor phases to represent the composition effect. The essential point is that critical loci for mixtures are indepen- dent of the concentration of the lightest component in a mixture. These nomographs are shown in Fig. This which cover 12 hydrocarbons methane.
Polyco Data. For K as a The GPA convergence pressure charts are primarily for alkane and alkene systems but do include charts for nitrogen. The former uses the method proposed by Hadden [Chem.
Mole fraction chloroform where it is shown that the critical loci for various mixtures of methane- FIG. Convergence pressure for the can predict K values quite accurately when the equation constants are mixture at the desired temperature is read from the assumed loci at available for the components in question.
These charts are a simplification of the present to a reasonable extent in the multicomponent mixture. The charts may not be valid when appreciable amounts of naphthenes or aromatics are present.
SI versions of these charts have been developed by Dadyburjor [Chem. Engineering Data Book. In that case. Soave SRK [Chem. Until recently. Consistent equations for enthalpy can be similarly derived.
Computer programs for K values derived from the SRK.. In addition. The Wong-Sandler Eq. At low through n-octane.
When either Eq. The ability of the SRK corre. For systems such as this. Consistent Antoine vapor pressure constants and liquid molar vol- gen. Onken op. The Wilson equation is particularly revised correlation for the standard-state liquid fugacity of hydrogen. Six popular expressions are the Margules. Table lists GS Paper P The preferred correlation of Pitzer et al. Sixth World Pet. Chao and Seader CS pair of components in the mixture are required for use in Eq.
Extensive listings of binary-interaction parame- The predictive ability of the last-named theory is exhibited in Fig. They obtained the parameters for binary systems at component constants for each species Tv. Five pure. Revised coefficients of Grayson and Streed constant Antonie equation. The K values are shown for various values of W.
Light hydrocarbons in admixture with crude oil. PD and PM are partial pressures of dimer and monomer. Parameter W is weight ley and Seader. Tables and include data on formic acid and acetic acid. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data Collection. Computer Cal- dimerizes in the vapor phase. Process Des.
Values of A and B for the first four normal aliphatic These equations when combined with Eq. AIChE J. To convert cubic centimeters per gram-mole to cubic feet per pound-mole. If instead the temperature is specified. A popular and recommended method is the following. This be combined to give operation will give one point on the equilibrium flash curve shown in zi Fig. As in the case of the bubble point. Except for an ideal across the valve is at constant enthalpy.
When the total pres. At the bubble point temperature. Values of Ki are culation of the bubble point temperature involves a trial-and-error constants if they are independent of liquid and vapor compositions.. Feed tempera- ture and the pressure drop across the valve are adjusted to vaporize The calculation for a point on the flash curve that is intermediate the feed to the desired extent.
The most common way October ].. The expansion isothermal flash calculation because T2 is specified. Most computer-aided process and the dew point equation.
The ditions is widely used in practice to separate a variety of mixtures. McDonald are known. Generally the iterations are continued until the change in a wide range of volatility. The limits of applicability of Eqs. Edmister [Ind. When converged. In addition to Eqs. At these limits Eq. P1 cussed by Michelsen [Fluid Phase Equil. TBP curve for the mixture and then use empirical correlations to con- ity. Another approach to complex mixtures is to obtain an Ameri- Eqs.
Van Nostrand. T2 and P2. Many important and subtle aspects of three-phase flash calculations are dis- In Fig. If K1 and K2 are functions of temperature and pressure only ideal Condensation of such mixtures may result in one liquid phase being solutions.
The design of multistage which energy effects on vapor and liquid rates leaving the stages are columns can be accomplished by graphical techniques when the feed negligible. The x-y diagram method estimate of the column design which can be refined by using the developed by McCabe and Thiele [Ind. A cedure. T1 can be tive to the unknown phase compositions. The method is exact only for those systems in for 27 industrial distillation processes. Such an The phase rule permits only two variables to be specified arbitrarily approach is especially useful for sensitivity analysis.
Doherty The y-x diagram is almost always plotted for the component that is the and Malone Conceptual Design of Distillation Systems. Curve B is typical of many systems e. Curve A. With the widespread availability of computers. Methanol-water 60 Ethanol-water 60 Isopropanol-water 12 Vinyl acetate—water 35 component that is more volatile at low values of x1 becomes less Ethylene oxide—water 50 volatile than the other component at high values of x1.
Mole fractions. The latter is more common. McGraw- more volatile denoted by the subscript 1 in the region where distilla. The units used later for the for interpreting the results of equation-based methods. An approximate equation-based approach based on the enthalpy compo. For the system described by curve enough calorimetric data are available to construct the diagram with.
New approximate the equilibrium curve quickly. Curve B. A describe this method for binary mixtures and extend it to multicomponent systems. Then by applying Eq. The y-x diagram can be plotted sitions. The approach is exact when the enthalpy composition surfaces are linear. This approach uses the energy balance in addition to mole An azeotrope limits the separation that can be obtained between balance and phase equilibrium relationships and is rigorous when components by simple distillation.
The x-y diagram librium data. K yx sition diagram was proposed by Peters [Ind. A heteroge- neous azeotrope is formed by curve C. HCN-water 15 Curve C.
Curve A shows the common case in which com. The use of the enthalpy composition diagram is given by It is sometimes permissible to assume constant relative volatility to Smith Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes. If the liquid rate is constant. The effect of a sidestream withdrawal point is illustrated by Fig. The material balance equation for the column section below the side- stream is If the sidestream in Fig.
For the envelope shown in Fig. The partial reboiler is equilibrium stage 1. The other assumptions are adiabatic operation no heat leaks and no heat of mixing or sensi- ble heat effects. The liquid-phase flow rate is assumed to be constant from tray to tray in each section of the column between addition feed and withdrawal product points. These assumptions are most closely approximated for close-boiling isomers.
Since the sidestream must be a saturated phase. The result of these assumptions on the calcula- tion method can be illustrated with Fig. The most important one is equal molar heats of vaporization for the two components.
The lines are made straight by the assumption of con- stant molar overflow. The constant-molar-overflow assumption rests on several underlying thermodynamic assumptions. At the point of intersection. The q line is the locus of all points of intersec- tion of the two operating lines. Equations such as through The top operating line must always intersect the diagonal mated from at the overhead-product composition xD.
Thermal Condition of the Feed The slope of the operating line changes whenever a feed stream or a sidestream is passed. Typical q line constructions for sidestream stages are shown The primes denote the streams below the stage to which the feed is in Fig. The plotted portions of the equilibrium curve curved and Partially flashed feed: If Superheated vapor feed: To calcu.
Similarly except for columns in which open steam is molar heat of vaporization introduced at the bottom. The q line shown is for a partially flashed feed. Figure feed and represents the moles of saturated liquid formed in the feed also shows the intersections of the operating lines with the diagonal con- stage per mole of feed.
The value of q is a measure of the thermal condition of the the diagonal at the composition yS or xS of the sidestream. The derivation of Eq. All five q line cases are shown in Fig. A point on an operating line represents two passing streams. The value of q for a particular feed can be esti- struction line.
Note that the q line for a sidestream must always intersect introduced. Equilibrium-Stage Construction Use of the equilibrium curve Subcooled liquid feed: This ratio in the operating line equation for the top section of the column [see Eq. An operating line can be located on the y-x diagram if 1 two points on the line are known or 2 one point and the slope are known.
The 0. A par. This procedure can be repeated by alter. Total number of stages N 1 Note that the lower operating line is used until the fourth stage is One overhead purity 1 passed.
Answers are desired to the following two questions. The condenser pressure will be set at These may be used as follows upper operating line is drawn as shown in Fig. The distil- operation [see subsection Degrees of Freedom and Design Variables. In this problem.
The process. The feed- equilibrium stages above and below stage n can be located by a vertical stage location is fixed at stage 4 and the total number of stages at eight. If the xB value were known. The operating line is the locus for compositions of all possible 40 psia. An xB value is Pressure and heat leak in reflux divider 2 assumed. If the percent. Since S was specified to be equal to approaches the equilibrium curve can be very wasteful insofar as the D in rate.
The operating line below in the column. The The sixth stage from the top is the feed stage. Minimum Stages A column operating at total reflux is repre- 1. Either the purity specifica. The higher feed location is the one that requires the lowest number of stages to xB composition will reduce the recovery of component 1 in the 95 per.
The xB value must then move upward along the diagonal of stages. It can be seen from Fig. These specifications permit the top operating when an existing column is being modeled.
Either of these cent overhead product. The new intersec. The lower operating line must run from the Then specified xB value on the diagonal to the required point of intersection on the feed q line.
The specified composi. Also all the liquid reaching the reboiler is. Fractional equilibrium stages have meaning. In ordinary situations. Intermediate Reboilers and Condensers When a large tem- perature difference exists between the ends of the column due to a wide boiling point difference between the components. Optimum Reflux Ratio The general effect of the operating reflux ratio on fixed costs. In such cases. Difficult Separations Some binary separations may pose special ing and condensing heat loads are the same for both columns.
The concept has meaning only if a separation between two components is specified and the number of stages is not specified. Since F. Figure b illustrates the minimum reflux condition. Each step in the diagram cor- mediate reboiler and an intermediate condenser. Minimum Reflux The minimum reflux ratio is defined as that ratio which if decreased by an infinitesimal amount would require an infinite number of stages to accomplish a specified separation between two components.
As the reflux ratio is reduced. Often an equilibrium curve will dip down closer to the diagonal at higher compositions. Total reflux operation gives the minimum number of stages required to effect a specified separation between xB and xD.
For equilibrium curves shaped like the one shown. The dashed lines correspond to simple distillation chap. Total boil. Wherever the contact appears. Con- equation is shown. The Murphree efficiency is Miscellaneous Operations The y-x diagrams for several other defined for the vapor phase as column configurations have not been presented here.
Nonequilibrium Stage Efficiency The use of the Murphree plate efficiency is par. These configurations are discussed in Smith rium curve.. Or in Limitations of the Gilliland correlation are discussed by Henley and extensive design and optimization studies. Doherty [Chem. The empirical correlation of poses even though computers are available to provide more rigorous Gilliland [Ind.
Also see in Sec. The true equilibrium curve is used for reflux from the Underwood equation. Note that rigorous Ponchon-Savarit method. Both methods work best when mixtures are nearly ideal. The available phase equilibrium and enthalpy data may not uses these values to give N for any specified R. Equation-based Fig.. A pseudoequilibrium been developed for mixtures with constant relative volatility. The application of a 50 percent Murphree vapor-phase efficiency Equation-Based Design Methods Exact design equations have on a y-x diagram is illustrated in Fig.
An analogous efficiency on log-log paper. Alternative approaches based on mass-transfer rates are Doherty and Malone op. President, Adsorption Research, Inc. Knowlton, Ph. Laronge, M. Director, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. Laros, M. Leib, Ph.
President, Leung Inc. Douglas LeVan, Ph. Litster, Ph. Loftus, D. Lowenhaupt, M. Malone, Ph. Maloney, Ph. Mathias, Ph. Technical Director, Fluor Corporation Sec. McAvoy, Ph. McGillicuddy, B. McGowan, P. McKenna, Ph. McNulty, Ph. President, T. McNulty and Associates, Inc. Moore, MBA, B. Ian Munro, P. Senior Consultant, Corrosion Probes, Inc. Noble, Ph. Oldshue, Ph. Process Safety Consultant Sec. Owens, B. Electrostatics Consultant, E.
Dupont de Nemours and Co. Penney, Ph. Pereira, Ph. Podolski, Ph. Pope, Ph. Prince, M. Prudich, Ph. Prugh, M. Raymus, M. President, Raymus Associates, Inc. Santoleri, P. Sarofim, Sc.
Schiappa, B. Schmalzer, Ph. Scott, B. Seborg, Ph.
Frank Seibert, Ph. Sharp, Ph. Shilling, P. Greg Shinskey, B. Consultant retired from Foxboro Co. Siebert, P. Louis, Mo. Silcox, Ph. Smith, Ph. Principal, Cecil L.
Smith Inc. Smith, B. Snow, Ph. Spicer III, Ph. Professor and Head, Ralph E. Srivastava, Ph. Steinmeyer, P. Distinguished Fellow, Monsanto Company retired Sec. Stiegel, P. Stoecker II, B. Taylor, B. Taylor, Ph. Tilton, Ph. Principal Consultant, Process Engineering, E. Timmerhaus, Ph.
Van Ness, D. Howard P. Waite, P. Walter, Ph. Wankat, Ph. Clifton L. Weiss, P. Wells, B. Wheeldon, Ph. Electric Power Research Institute Sec.
Wilson, B. Winschel, B. Wisdom, M. Woodward, Ph. Perry both the initiator and editor. Several chemical engineers, serving as editor- or coeditor-in-chief, have guided the preparation of the different editions over the years. These include John H. Perry first to third editions , Robert H.
Perry fourth to sixth editions , Cecil H.