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Both are explained in Appendix A.
As a side note, in the following steps and throughout the rest of the book, I will continue to provide images using the mysql client on both Windows and macOS. Although the appearance differs, the steps and results will be identical. To use the mysql client: Access your system from a command-line interface.
On Unix systems and macOS, this is just a matter of bringing up the Terminal or a similar application. Invoke the mysql client, using the appropriate command.
Access the mysql client by entering the full path to the utility, along with the proper arguments. The basic premise is that you are running the mysql client, connecting as username, and requesting to be prompted for the password.
Not to overstate the point, but the username and password values that you use must already be established in MySQL as valid see Appendix A. The password you use here should be for the user you specified in the preceding step. Select the database you want to use.
After getting into the mysql client, run a USE command to choose the database with which you want to work. The test database is one that MySQL installs by default. Assuming it exists on your server, all users should be able to access it. Quit out of mysql Type either exit or quit to terminate your MySQL session and leave the mysql client.
This step—unlike most other commands you enter in the mysql client—does not require a semicolon at the end.
Quit the Terminal or DOS console session. On Windows, it will also close the DOS prompt window. If you make a mistake in typing a query, you can scroll up to find it, and then correct the error. Using phpMyAdmin phpMyAdmin www. Its sole purpose is to provide an interface to a MySQL server.
It is somewhat easier and more natural to use than the mysql client but requires a PHP installation and must be accessed through a web browser. If you are using a hosted server, your web host is virtually guaranteed to provide phpMyAdmin as the primary way to work with MySQL and the mysql client may not be an option.
The URL you use will depend on your situation.
If running on a hosted site, your web host will provide you with the proper URL. If possible and necessary, use the list on the left to select a database to use.
Use the list of databases on the left side of the window to choose with which database you want to work. This is the equivalent of running a USE databasename query within the mysql client. That user might have access to one database, several databases, or every database.
The fundamental parts of an Ajax application, which include issuing a request and interpreting a response from the server. How to modify elements of applications from previous chapters to create Ajax-enabled pages. The availability of code libraries and where to find more information.
The result of Ajax programming is typically a cleaner and faster user interface to an interactive application—think of the interfaces to Facebook, Flickr, and other sorts of social networking sites that are at the forefront of Web 2. These applications enable the user to perform many tasks without reloading or redrawing entire pages, and this is where Ajax comes into play. This action mimics the result of actions in standalone applications, but in a web environment.
A common example is that of working in a spreadsheet application offline versus viewing a table full of information on a website.
In the offline application, the user could make changes in one cell and have formulas applied to other cells, or the user could sort the data in one column, all without leaving the original interface.
In a static web environment, clicking a link to sort a column would require a new request to the server, a new result sent to the browser, and for the page to be redrawn to the user.
In the next few sections, we look at the various technologies that come into play when using Ajax. This information is by no means comprehensive; I provide additional resources throughout. When a user requests a web page by typing a URL into the location bar of a web browser, or by following a link, submitting a form, or performing any other task that takes the user to a new destination, the browser makes an HTTP request.
This request is sent to a web server, which returns one of many possible responses. To get an understandable response from the web server, the request has to be properly formed.
Knowing the proper formation of requests and responses is critical when using Ajax, because it is the responsibility of the developer to write HTTP requests and expect certain results within the Ajax application. Status codes beginning with 1 are informational, 2 represents success, 3 represents redirection, 4 represents a client error such as for a missing item, and 5 represents a server error such as for a malformed script.
At first glance this functionality seems quite similar to an Ajax-enabled site, and in some ways it is. Although a DHTML-driven site may show dynamic movement in navigational drop-downs or in form elements that change depending on the selections previously made, all the data for these elements have already been retrieved. For instance, if you have designed a DHTML site that that shows Section 1 of some text when the user rolls over a link or button, and shows Section 2 of some text when the user rolls over yet another link or button, the text for both Section 1 and Section 2 will already have been loaded by the browser.
In an Ajax-enabled site, it is likely that the area reserved for Section 1 or Section 2 text will be filled based on the result of a remote scripting call to the server while the rest of the site remains static. Using CSS allows the developer to change the definition of a tag, class, or ID within one document the style sheet and have the changes take effect immediately in all pages that link to that style sheet.