Manual of English Grammar and Composition, Vol - Forgotten Books English Grammar Reference Book: Grammar and Error Correction Guide and Phrasal. EN GLISH GRAMMAR AN D COMPOSITION t HA P. PAGE. 1 9. PRO PRIETY O F DICT IO N. Sec tion 1. Common Errors in the Use O f Common Words. 2. brief survey of linguistic schools in the theory of English grammar so that the students Published in , Nesfield's grammar influenced prescriptive and.
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Nesfield. J. C., Outline of English Grammar. The Macmillan Company of Canada. Revised, (A good author opposed to new terminology.) reference book. Manual of English grammar and composition by John Collinson Nesfield, , Macmillan edition, in English. Nesfield English Grammar Key Paperback Books- download Nesfield English Grammar Key Books online at lowest price with Rating & Reviews, Free Shipping*, COD.
Clauses are of two kinds, principal and subordinate. A PHRASE is a group of words in a sentence having the function of a single word, and not consisting of a subject and predicate. When I returned, I heard the news. On my return, I heard the news. I heard that he had returned home. His return home has delighted me. What he did interested me much. This He Clause. Likewise a phrase may be used as a modifier, a subject substantive, an object, or a complement. Classify the clauses of the following sentences as principal or subordinate.
Define the use of each italicised phrase. Johnston, who lives on Evelyn Avenue, has a summer near the lake. When March comes, we expect blustery weather. The boys often tell me that after seven o'clock is a splendid 1.
When the train was ready to start, the conductor shouted All aboard! How many pupils in this class know what a Sabbath-day's " 4. That the Northern Spy is the best apple on the market is the opinion of many good judges. The late Mr. Roosevelt, who was an enthusiastic sportsman, hunted big game in Africa. When I went to school in the country, through the fields was the shortest way home. The reeve speaks with confidence, as he knows all the ins and outs of this business.
These good-for-nothings will bring disgrace on us, if they are not checked. Some of the girls knew at once that over the fence was out. Any Canadian child can tell you that no man's land is the area between our trenches and the enemy's.
You had better be what you seem. Though the old man has had many ups and downs, he has never lost faith in humanity. We were the first that ever burst Into that silent sea. As I spoke, I tore The paper up and down, and down and up. Write a paragraph of ten lines about the in which you live, taking care that most of shall contain more than one clause each.
Classify the clauses in your paragraph. Sentences are classified as simple, plex, 9 compound, com- and compound-complex. The boys and girls played ball together. The boys played ball, and the girls played house.
The boys played, the girls danced, and the older folks 2. The boys are returning, because it is getting dark. If they come, I shall learn what they have done. A combination of two or more sentences, at least one of which is complex. If he comes, I shall help him but, if he fails to come, I shall abandon him.
You are my friend and for that reason, I know that you will help me. This great King Alfred , in the first year of his reign, fought nine battles with the Danes. He made some treaties with them, too, by which the false Danes swore they would quit the country. They pretended to consider that they had taken a very solemn oath, but they cared little for it. Indeed, they thought nothing of breaking oaths, and treaties too, as soon as it suited their purpose.
One fatal winter, in the fourth year of King Alfred's reign, they spread themselves in great numbers over the whole of England and so dispersed and routed the King's soldiers, that the King was left alone.
He was obliged to disguise himself as a common peasant, and to take refuge in the cottage of one of his cowherds, who did not know his face. The Subject Substantive word, a phrase, or a clause.
This boy has fished all day. What they wanted was very surprising. What he wants and what he gets are different things. The predicate verb of a sentence be a word or a may phrase: You You When when You have worked hard.
The following is ; an easy method of showing the analysis of a sentence: All the 2. This industrious 4. Subject and predicate are separated by a short slanting line. Subject substantive and predicate verb are underlined. Modifiers are enclosed in brackets. An object is put on the line below, and is connected with the verb by a diagonal line. A complement is put on the line above, and is connected with the verb by a diagonal line.
Analyse the sentences in each of the following extracts, using the graphic method explained above.
Classify the sentences in the following extracts: Shortly Tom came upon the juvenile pariah of the village, Huckleberry Finn.
Huckleberry was cordially dreaded by all the mothers of the town, because he was idle, lawless, vulgar, and bad. Besides, all their children admired him so, and delighted in his forbidden society, and wished they dared to be like him. So he played with him every time he got a chance. Huckleberry was always dressed in the cast-off clothes of full-grown men, and they were His hat was a in perennial bloom and fluttering with rags.
His coat, when he wore one, hung nearly to his heels, and had the rearward buttons far down the back. But one suspender supported his trousers. The fringed legs of his trousers dragged in the dirt when not rolled up. Huckleberry came and went at He slept on door-steps in fine weather, his own sweet will. He did not have to go to school or to church, or call any being master, or obey anybody. He could go fishing or swimming when he chose, and could stay as long as he liked. Nobody forbade him to fight.
He could sit up late, if he pleased. He was always the first boy that went barefoot in the spring. He was also the last to resume leather He never had to wash or put on clean clothes.
Everything that goes to make life precious that boy had. So thought every harassed, hampered, respectable boy in St. Arthur Wesley 1 entered the army in , as he received a commission in the 4ist regiment of foot.
He held the rank of ensign for some months, and then became a lieutenant. The following anecdote proves that he was still a shy and awkward lad, and that the fair sex saw nothing to admire in him. He was at a ball one night, and could not find a partner. As he inherited his father's taste for music, he consoled himself by sitting down near the band. When the party broke up, the other officers took home their lady friends; but young Wesley was, by common consent, left to travel with the fiddlers.
Old Lady Aldborough once reminded the Duke of the circumstance, after he had become a great man. He laughed heartily, " and she added, We should not leave you to go home with the fiddlers now. When Michael lay on his dying bed, His conscience was awakened He bethought him of his sinful deed, And he gave me a sign to come with speed ; 1 This was the early form of the Duke: The words may not again be said, That he spoke to me, on death-bed laid They would rend this Abbaye's massy nave, ; And heaps above his grave.
There are eight so-called parts of speech.
This means simply that words, phrases, and clauses are grouped in eight classes according to their functions in the sentence. The parts of speech are: Nouns are divided into two classes. That that book letter. It represents is is it. He my This your book. The pronouns of one class are called PERSONAL, because they distinguish between the person speaking first person the person spoken to second person , and the person or thing spoken about third person.
The personal pronouns , are: First person Second person I, we. Third person he, she, it, they. Nouns Both designate things, nouns by naming them, pronouns by For this reason representing them without naming them. It should be remembered that the classification of a word depends largely on its use in the sentence. The same word may, for instance, be used as a noun in one sentence and an adjective in another.
The Klondyke produces much We gave him Love They is a gold watch. Then I saw in my dream that these good companions gave to Christian a loaf of bread, a bottle of wine, and a cluster of raisins.
Three years she grew in sun and shower, Then Nature said, " A lovelier flower On earth was never sown 3. Light thickens, and the crow Makes wing to the rooky wood Good things of day begin to droop and drowse, Whiles night's black agents to their preys do rouse. Thou marvell'st at my words but hold thee still Things bad begun make strong themselves by ill. So, prithee, go with me. The details of their inflection will be given in the next two chapters. Direct object of a verb or a preposition.
Indirect object of a verb. Who had told his friend the story? Roy's dog has bitten both me and him. Explain the case of each of the italicised words in sentences 2 and 3. In the next chapter, you will learn that the names nominative case, accusative case, etc. While nouns have four cases, they have only two case-forms, a common case-form for the nominative, accusative, and dative cases, and a genitive case-form. I Acc. We are men now we possess men's rights.
Him who cares to give me the lie, I shall be prepared to meet 1. But while 4. Though the mist comes up from the marshes grey, this softer hrt their bliss supplies, It gives their follies also And covers the earth in its phantom fold, Though it shrouds for a moment the golden day, There must come a time when it back is rolled; And then thou wilt see that the day so dull in its heart as it had of yore, the world as ever with bliss is full, nought is changed from the scene before.
Has the glow That That R. When Ceres heard this, she S. But that I am forbid the secrets of my prison-house, could a tale unfold, whose lightest word To I tell Would harrow up thy soul, freeze thy young blood. The mortal relics of Lord Byron, the illustrious poet, which have been just brought from Greece," said the dapper-looking individual. EXERCISE 14 Write a paragraph of about ten lines about what you would like to do to-morrow, and then select from your paragraph all subject substantives, direct objects of verbs, indirect objects, and words in the genitive case.
A declaration, or ask a question. You have already learned that verbs are classified according to their meaning, as follows: We reward our brave men. Our men are brave. Our brave men fought well. Verbs are inflected changed in form for tense, person, distinctions are shown number and mood. Sometimes these by means of verb phrases. TENSE indicates time, present, past, and future. Name the tense of each italicised verb. Name the case of each italicised substantive.
Merrily the feast I'll make ; To-day I'll brew, to-morrow bake Merrily I'll dance and sing, ; For next day will a stranger bring. Hobson Newcome was a better man of business than his more solemn and stately brother, at whom he laughed in his and he said rightly, that a gentleman had to get jocular way up very early in the morning who wanted to take him in.
The Scots are a bold hardy race, and delight much in war. When they invaded England, they were all usually on horseback they brought no carriages and carried no provisions. Under the flap of his saddle each man had a broad plate of metal and behind his saddle a little bag of oatmeal.
So that when occasion needed, he made cakes of the oatmeal, and baked them upon the plates. They do me wrong, and I will not endure it Who are they that complain unto the King That I, forsooth, am stern and love them not?
If Father forgive your trespasses. An stantive. Moreover, the addition of the adjective happy changes the meaning of the whole subject, and indeed of the whole sentence. These pictures, beautiful and costly, belong to the National Gallery. Many pictures in the National Gallery are beautiful and costly. Notice the positions of the adjectives in these sentences. An adjective, or another adverb. The man drove very furiously. The driving of the man was very Explain the function use of furious.
I pleasure, Imperious Caesar, dead and turned to clay, Might stop a hole to keep the wind away. Soon the assembly, in a circle ranged, each look was changed Stood silent round the shrine To sudden veneration women meek Beckon'd their sons to silence. Near yonder copse, where once the garden smiled, And still where many a garden-flower grows wild, There, where a few torn shrubs the place disclose, ; ; 5.
The village preacher's A man he was to all And modest mansion rose, the country dear, pounds a year. Behold her, single in the field, Yon solitary Highland lass Reaping and singing to herself 7. Canada, rich as she is in natural resources, has been found! For three whole days across the sky, In sullen packs that loomed and broke, With flying fringes dim as smoke, The columns of the rain went by.
The crow doth When neither sing as sweetly as the lark, is attended. The road now became The lilacs smell The flag came The moon does not shine 5. Lloyd George 6. The 1. This made my friend He did his work well, as 9. His visit He was up Foch has gone. The substantive position is which immediately follows the preand is in the called the object of the preposition, accusative case. Have you received letters from your friends? The noun friends is the object of the preposition from, and is in the accusative case.
A words, phrases, or clauses but not to form phrases. Cartier and Champlain were great explorers. Love of right and hatred of wrong were his great virtues. What he did and what he tried to do are known to all. An interjection is equivalent to a whole sentence, and has no grammatical connection with the other words in the sentence. Faith they have failed in their attempt. Have they come Do you?
Explain the function of each preposition and conjunction. Maitre Jean could not bear the man, but Catherine, his would keep for him a choice morsel of bacon, and answer her husband, who seemed put out about it " I have my seat in church, and I wish to have my seat in Heaven and you, too, will be glad to sit by my side in the i.
And And ; Which ne'er might be repeated. Let us go over the 4. The boy told his hills he had done. He had 5. Our friend Bert had been away from home, but he hurried back to Fullarton for the wedding.
EXERCISE 20 each blank with a preposition or a conjunction, and then, in connection with the word you have supplied, tell what part of speech it is, and explain its function.
Joe ran the stairs, he never walked he Fill could run. Russians have died hunger. All roads lead Rome. He left his children nothing a good name. Five them were wise, five them were Many I foolish. Toronto 9. Never trouble trouble The storm was so severe 1 1 Let us dispense.
This house The 6. It's easy enough to be pleasant, life flows along a song. It ceased; still the sails made on soil his troubles A pleasant noise noon.
These cadets march These cadets march Up! Phrases as well as words are classified as parts of speech. This ne'er-do-well is lazy.
The Duke of Richmond has come. Pronouns We admire each other.
They praise one another. Verb We shall have done it. He would have come, if he had known the hour. The people of this city will help the men of the Adjectives army.
Our friends work in the city, but we work on the Adverb farm. Your friend came by way of London. Preposition He did it in order that they might be free. Conjunction Upon my word! Interjection Nouns: Subordinate adjectives, a Clauses are as classified substantives, and adverbs.
What he did interests me very much. I know that our friends have come. I shall give what he says object. Direct object of attention. What is your opinion of what they propose object of preposition.
Direct one that modifies a substantive. Have you seen Harry Lee, who has just returned from France? The mouse that always trusts to one poor Can never be a mouse of any soul.
They never taste who always drink They always talk who never think. Like simple adverbs, In the adverbial clauses express a variety of ideas. Place Whither thou goest, I will go I shall Ruth I will lodge. Time i. Since he left, I have been reading this book. Our 3. They have Do 4. Since you have helped me, I shall help you. They came, 5. They came, in order that they might help us. Neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they Matthew vii. If you help me, I shall help you. If our friends were here, we should rejoice.
Even if help came now, we should fail. Though He slay me, yet will I trust Him. They were so exhausted that they fell. I told such a story that they pitied me. Degree He Job: This man's speech is better than his brother's Notes 1. Notice that in each of the first sixteen sentences quoted in section 3ic, above, the adverbial clause modifies the verb in the principal clause.
Adverbial clauses modify verbs more frequently than they modify adjectives or adverbs. A clause of purpose always refers to a time subse- quent to that of the principal clause. Moreover, a clause of purpose always implies a wish. A clause of concession is similar to one of condition, but implies a concession of some point by the speaker. The following sentences illustrate this point I concede that Smith Even 4.
Clauses of degree might be called clauses of com- them assists in expressing a comtwo clauses of degree given above that the Notice parison. The first one modifies the adjective good, and the second one modifies the adjective better. Be careful not to confuse, clauses of result with either clauses of degree or those of purpose.
The clause of result explains the result or consequence of some action or state. Such a clause does not help to express a comparison as does a clause of degree nor does it express purpose. Give the relation of each. The Allies their side. When were victorious in the war because right was the battalion returned to the city, the bells rang and the whistles blew.
My friend, Mr. Gourlay, tells his pupils that children cry 3. The zero hour was three o'clock in the morning when the enemy trenches were usually quiet. Though many were invited to the banquet, few came. Smith told the family that, if his directions were followed, the patient would recover. The difficulties to be overcome by the first settlers of this province were greater than the us so much. He is as bold as a lion. He saw that, though there was g.
The boys in Mr. Mclntosh's charge were so anxious to he was compelled to prevent them from studying The scout hid in the dense forest, lest he should be seen by the enemy. The book lay where it had fallen. As the twig is bent, the tree inclines. The delayed you have been pleased to take of but it has been early, had been kind Bos WELL, indifferent and cannot enjoy it.
Don Quixote had always showed himself such a goodnatured man, that he was beloved, not only by his family, but by everyone that knew him. He told me that nothing would give him greater pleasure than to see me dance a minuet with his wife after the marriage dinner.
I was bid go this way by a man who directed me also to and as yonder gate, that I might escape the wrath to come I was going thither, I fell in here. Grammar 5. God, in cursing, gives us better 7. Than men in benediction.
Oft in the stilly night, Ere slumber's chain has bound me, Fond memory brings the light Of other days around me. Because she was extremely zealous for the education of my younger brother, her desire was that he might be sent with me to Lewes. Get work, get work Know 'tis better than what you work to get. Certain words resemble parts of speech, but are not fully enough like any one of them to be classified as parts of speech.
They are called particles, and are classed as adverbial, prepositional, or conjunctive according to the part of speech they resemble most. There are Even many my friends friends here. My friends even criticized me.
My friends criticized me, even. Prepositional particle. As chairman of the meeting he was successful. Conjunctive particle. The word there adverbial force, and in sentence I has lost its original here used simply as an introductory word by means of which we are enabled to put the subject after the verb.
Even resembles an adverb more than any other part of speech, and yet it may be used to emphasise is any part of speech. Justify the name prepositional particle for the word on in sentence 5. The word as in the last sentence does not join one clause to another, or even one to another, yet it is conjunctive in origin.
This is best shown by substituting when, and adding a verb, as word follows: When You have already learned to analyse sentences into subject and predicate, objects, complements, and modifiers. There is another kind of analysis, called clausal, which simply divides the sentence into clauses, and defines their relations.
In clausal analysis, the principal clause should be stated and then the subordinate clauses in turn. The first, following form is suggested for written work see p. Peace 2. The war has been fought, and peace is being made. Our soldiers went to Europe, because there was a war there and now they are coming home, because the war is will ; over. If the statesmen in Paris are wise, and just peace, shall we not be happy? Sentence i if they arrange a: Peace will be made i. Peace will be made, war is over.
Complex declarative, Principal. Sentence 2: The war made. Compound declarative. The war has been fought, Principal. Sentence 3: Our soldiers over. Compound-complex declarative. Our soldiers went to Europe, Principal.
Sentence 4: Complex interrogative, shall we not be happy? The noun clause which is subject of a principal clause, should be stated both with the latter and separately, as in the following example: What they have accomplished is very important. Principal declarative. What they have accomplished. Likewise, when a substantive clause is a complement, or the object of a verb or preposition, it should first a. This book is what we want.
We know that they are sincere. But, sir, I wish to tell you that the noblest prospect which a Scotchman ever sees, is the high road that leads him to England. Then he went on, till he came to the house of the interpreter, where he knocked over and over at last one came to the door and asked who was there.
Never love unless you can 3.
Bear with all the faults of man ;! Men sometimes Though but be cause they will jealous little see, And hang the head in discontent, And speak what straight they will repent. Augustine had, by order of Pope Gregory, taken interpreters of the nation of the Franks, and, sending to King Ethelbert of Kent, announced that he was come from Rome, and brought a joyful message, which most undoubtedly assured to all that took advantage of it, everlasting joys in Heaven, and a kingdom that would never BEDE, end.
Ecclesiastical History. His antagonists, though inferior in strength, had both swiftness and daring, and above all they had settled how to attack him. When he reared his axe, they flew at him like cats, and both together. If he struck a full blow with his weapon, he would most he saw this, likely kill one, but the other would certainly kill him and understanding the danger, he thrust the handle fiercely in Denys's face, and, turning, jabbed with the steel at Gerard.
Denys went staggering back, covered with blood. Gerard had rushed in like lightning, and, just as the axe turned to descend on him, drove his sword so fiercely through the giant's body that the very hilt sounded on his ribs like the blow of a pugilist, and Denys, staggering back to help his friend, saw a steel point come out of the Abbot's ; back. Although she had sunk twice, I was so overcome by my sensations that I was unable to attempt her rescue.
She must have certainly perished, had not my companion, perceiving her danger, instantly plunged in to her relief, and with some difficulty brought her in safely to the opposite shore. By taking the current a little further up, the rest of the family got safely over, where we had an opportunity of joining our Her gratitude may be more readily acknowledgments to hers.
My wife also expressed the hope that she might have the pleasure of returnO. Fagin's character. Whenever the Dodger or Charley Bates came home at night, emptyhanded, he would expatiate with great vehemence on the misery of idle and lazy habits and that he might enforce upon them the necessity of an active life, he would send them supperless to bed.
On one occasion, indeed, when they had returned with nothing, he was so righteously indignant, that he even knocked them both down a flight of stairs but this was carrying out his virtuous precepts to 7. Oliver ; ; an unusual extent. If they attack the centre, which is covered by the principal battery, we can concentrate the left flank on this height and retire in good order to the reserve. O good old man how well in thee appears 9. The constant service of the antique world, When service sweat for duty, not for meed Thou art not for the fashion of these times, 8.
Where none will sweat but for promotion, And having that, do choke their service up Even with the having it is not so with thee,: But, poor old man, thou prun'st a rotten tree, much as a blossom yield thy pains and husbandry. But come thy ways we'll go along together, And ere we have thy youthful wages spent, We'll light upon some settled low content.
The Portuguese in the Brazils would have At last, our never-failing friend, William the Quaker, helped us out again.
His proposal was this, that he should go as master of the ship, taking a few men whom we could best trust, and attempt to trade privately, upon the coast of Brazil, with the planters, not at the principal ports, since that would not be admitted.
The village all declared how much he knew. But past is all his fame. The very spot, Where many a time he triumph'd, is forgot. She wishes to know, by an early post, where he expects to go if he and with what feelings he could turn up quarrels with his victuals his nose at the broth, after his good master had asked a blessing on it. This was not told to her by Mr. Squeers, since he is too kind and good to make trouble for anyone, and it has vexed her more than Mobbs can imagine.
She is sorry to find he is discontented, and Mr. Squeers will flog him into a happier state of mind. Cheerfulness and contentment must be kept up. Mobbs, " Alas, alas for Hamelin! The Mayor sent East, West, North, and South, To offer the Piper, by word of mouth, Wherever it was men's lot to find him, Silver and gold to his heart's content, he'd only return the way he went, bring the children behind him.
But when they saw 'twas a lost endeavour, And Piper and dancers were gone forever, They made a decree that lawyers never Should think their records dated duly If, after the day of the month and year, These words did not as well appear, " And so long after what happened here, On the twenty-second of July, Thirteen hundred and seventy-six.
If And Now Nature, 'tis said, is a comical jade, And among the fantastical tricks she has play'd, Was the making our good Father Richard a brother, As like him in form as one pea's like another ; He was tall and upright, about six feet in height, His complexion was what you'd denominate light, And, though he had not shorn his ringlets of brown, He'd a little bald patch on the top of his crown.
But here, it's pretended, the parallel ended no doubt his life might have been mended, And people who spoke of the Prior with delight, Shook their heads if you mentioned his brother, the Knight.
And he thought it but just, since the owner had changed his profession, that the horse should also change his title and be dignified with another it must be a sonorous word such a one as should fill the mouth, and seem ; ; ENGLISH GRAMMAR 32 consonant with the quality and profession of his master. And thus, after many names which he devised, rejected, changed, liked, disliked, and pitched upon again, he concluded to call him Rozinante, a word composed of two parts, Rozin meaning an ordinary horse, and ante meaning formerly a name, lofty sounding, and significant of what he had been before, and also of what he was now in a word, a horse before or above all the vulgar breed of horses in the world.
You, merchant, have you anything to say? But little I am arm'd and well prepar'd. Give me your hand, Bassanio fare you well Portia. Commend me to your honourable wife Tell her the process of Antonio's end Say how I lov'd you, speak me fair in death; And when the tale is told, bid her be judge Whether Bassanio had not once a love. Repent not you that you shall lose your friend, And he repents not that he pays your debt For, if the Jew do cut but deep enough, I'll pay it instantly with all my heart.
Her heart melted, I suppose, at the notion that she should do for, when she reanything unkind to any mortal, great or small turned, she had sent away the housekeeper upon an errand by the door at the farther end of the gallery and, coming back to the lad, with a look of infinite pity and tenderness in her eyes, she took his hand again, placing her other fair hand on his head, and saying some words to him, which were so kind, and said in a voice so sweet, that this boy, who had never looked upon such a beauty before, felt as if the touch of a superior being or angel smote him down to the ground, and kissed the fair protecting hand as he knelt on one knee.
Other extracts for analysis will be found in Appendix E. A NOUN For instance, the word city in the sentence, Montreal is a great city, a common noun, because it may be used to name any one of the class of things we call cities. A common noun is significant, i. A proper noun is not significant. The word city has a definite meaning, and is used to name only places of a certain size and character. The word Montreal, on the other hand, has now no meaning, and is used to name a city, an island, and a river.
The proper noun begins with a capital letter common noun usually begins with a small letter. A common noun becomes a proper noun when used Proper city. The Tower of London has held 6. D A many notable prisoners. There are two Titians in this gallery. Several budding Miltons are in this class. When some lifeless thing, some lower animal, some quality, or some emotion is personified, a common noun becomes a proper noun, and is written with a capital.
A concrete noun is the name of something that has a material existence outside of our minds. And here is a story of a Brigade Headquarters that lived in a house surrounded by a moat over which there was only one road. On Thursday, the enemy's artillery found the house, and later on, as the rush came, their rifle fire found it also. The staff went on with its work till the end of the week, when The shells set the place alight, and they were forced to move. Captain Scrimger, medical officer attached to the Royal Montreal Regiment, protected the wounded man with his own body against the shrapnel that was coming through the naked rafters, and carried him out of the 1 "It is recommended that the term collective be not used except when needed in explaining the occasional use of a plural verb with a singular noun.
Two of the staff, Brigadier-General Hughes then Brigade-Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade and Lieutenant Thompson then Assistant Adjutant, Royal Montreal Regiment re-swam the moat, and, waiting for a lull in the shell fire, got the wounded man across the road on to a stretcher and into a dressing-station, after which they went on with their official duties.
Within the lists, in knightly pride, Prize of the 2. An High Home and haughty Dacre ride ; Their leading staffs of steel they wield, As marshals of the mortal field While to each knight their care assigned Like vantage of the sun and wind. Then heralds hoarse did loud proclaim, In king and queen and warden's name, That none, while lasts the strife, Should dare, by look, or sign, or word, Aid to a champion to afford. A noun denoting a male being is of the masculine gender.
A noun denoting a female being is of the feminine gender. All other nouns are of the neuter gender. They are two kinds, a the names of things without sex, b the names that are given indifferently to beings of both sexes. Gender in Modern English is a distinction in words, corresponding to the distinction of sex in the objects Modern English is said, therefore, to they represent.
Latin, French, and German, on the other hand, have grammatical gender, because the gender of nouns in these languages has been determined For largely by the forms and derivations of words. The distinction of gender in nouns is of importance Modern English only in connection with the use of personal pronouns and possessive adjectives.
Except in such connection, the gender of a noun may be ignored. Russian Dutch: Spanish 3. One feminine noun is belle. Gender is sometimes indicated by adding or prefixing a noun or a pronoun 4. Some ; names are applied Christian proper only, others to women William, Thomas, only Henry: But cliff, cliffs muff, muffs ; ; b Most nouns ending in change y to i and add -es chief, chiefs. But nouns ending add -s monkey, monkeys in y preceded by a vowel simply: It will be noticed that many of the nouns in list b are used more frequently in familiar speech than are those in list c.
A few nouns change the vowel sound of the stem. This method of forming plurals is used with a large number of nouns in German, as Mann, Manner The mark: One noun adds 39 -en to the singular; ox, oxen.
Three words have double plurals, a form already plural - e n being added to: A number of words taken from foreign languages form their plurals according to the rules of those languages. Many of these words have both foreign and English plurals, sometimes with different meanings for the phenomenon nebula two: Armstrong man-servant mother-in-law Dutchman footstool Some nouns have the same form for singular and plural, either generally, or in certain cases: In a large class of Old English neuter nouns, such as swine, deer, and sheep, one case-form was used for the nominative and accusative cases, singular and plural, and in Middle-English times many other nouns came to have the same peculiarity through analogy.
Although the words mentioned above generally have the same forms for singular and plural, they sometimes have plurals in - e s. There are several fishes kinds of fish in this lake. We have six dozen eggs. Dozens of eggs are for sale. The people of 2. Europe are are tired of war. Some nouns, especially The peoples names of nationalities material, are seldom or never used in the plural, on account of their meaning tin,: But a ship's coppers, tins kinds of tin, or, tin dishes, or cans , the clays varieties of clay of Quebec, earths kinds of earth , the beauties of the St.
Lawrence valley. Some nouns are used ordinarily in the plural only: A few nouns are plural in form but singular in meaning, unless specially used in the plural. Several 5. Mathematics is are studied with delight by most girls. The ashes was were carried out by the janitor. News of the victory is are sent far and wide. How much did you pay for this these spectacles? The United States has have taken part in the war against Germany.
Checkers is are a favourite game with Mrs. The seventh innings is are decisive.
Riches does do not bring happiness. The eaves of the house is are thirty feet above the ground. Alms is are given to the needy. The people of Canada is are proud of the Canadian soldiers. The mob demands demand the release of the The committee is are now in session, and its their report is brought in, it they will go home. All should be interested in it them. Statistics is are said to be dull. These men are heathen heathens.
The archives of Canada is are preserved at Ottawa. By this these means he was able to accomplish his ends. The brothers brethren of this society are to attend church in a body.
CASE You have already learned that English nouns have nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative, and two case-forms, the common and the genitive. The Singular nouns not ending in to form the genitive case-form. Singular nouns ending in an s sound, add an apostrophe, or -'s, according to the sound of the word. Sometimes both forms are used. When in doubt add -'s, or avoid the use of the genitive case.
Plural nouns ending in s add an apostrophe only: Plural nouns not ending in an s sound, add women's hats, the policemen's union. Compound nouns and noun -'s: John Workman's house, her sister-in-law's carriage, the Prince of Wales' palace. The same method is followed when a noun is preceded by a title, or descriptive or limiting words: When a thing belongs to two or more joint owners, only the last proper name has the sign of the genitive case Noden, Hallit and Johnston's store.
This is William and Henry's chance a joint chance to have a holiday. But when the ownership is not joint, each proper name should have the genitive form Noden's, Hallit's, and Johnston's stores. Each has a: In most cases the genitive case-form may be replaced by a phrase with of: Hindenburg's defeat: When the ravages of the disease, the top of the is hill.
We sometimes avoid ambiguity by using a phrase: Sometimes euphony decides our choice. The case-forms Common Genitive: Give list, This should be a written exercise. Funeral Oration of Pericles. The commonest use of the nominative case of a verb is as subject: The enemy having yielded, our soldiers came home. They the enemy having yielded, our soldiers came home. Because the enemy had yielded, our soldiers came home.
You will notice that the italicised phrases in the first and second sentences, and the subordinate clause in the third sentence, are all adverbial, since they tell why our soldiers came home.
In the clause, the noun enemy is in the nominative case, because it is the subject of the clause ; in the phrases, the noun enemy and the pronoun they are in the nominative case because of settled usage, not because of their grammatical relations with other words.
Because of this lack of dependence on other words for enemy in No. In German the accusative is used. In Milton are found examples of the accusative case used ab" him destroyed.
A phrase containing a substantive in the nominative absolute can usually be changed into an adverbial clause. The snow coming very late, we had no sleighing for Christmas. Because the snow came very late, we had no sleighing for Christmas. The task being finished, we went home. EXERCISE 32 In each of the following sentences select the noun or proin the nominative absolute, and change each adverbial phrase containing a nominative absolute into an adverbial noun clause.
The labours of the day being ended, you may now go to rest. My friend having failed to be can without her. The weather and the tide being favourable, Caesar set sail present, I shall I for Britain. My story being done, my pains a world of sighs. This duty performed, 6. The 7. King lay down, his heart heavy with sorrow. All things forgotten besides, they gave themselves To the maddening whirl of the dizzy dance. Whoso The up ask'd her for his wife, riddle told not, lost his life.
O O Judge me, 1. Subject and predicate are separated by a short slanting line. Subject substantive and predicate verb are underlined. Modifiers are enclosed in brackets. An object is put on the line below, and is connected with the verb by a diagonal line. A complement is put on the line above, and is connected with the verb by a diagonal line. Analyse the sentences in each of the following extracts, using the graphic method explained above.
Classify the sentences in the following extracts : 1. Tom came upon the juvenile pariah of the village, Huckleberry Finn. Huckleberry was cordially dreaded by all the mothers of the town, because he was idle, lawless, vulgar, and bad.
Besides, all their children admired him so, and delighted in his forbidden society, and wished they dared to be like him. So he played with him every time he got a chance. Huckleberry was always dressed in the cast-off clothes of full-grown men, and they were His hat was a in perennial bloom and fluttering with rags.
His coat, when he wore one, hung nearly to his heels, and had the rearward buttons far down the back. But one suspender supported his trousers. The fringed legs of his trousers dragged in the dirt when not rolled up. Huckleberry came and went at He slept on door-steps in fine weather, his own sweet will.