This book is designed to accompany the texts in Longman's Preparation Course for the TOEFL iBT Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test. Peterson's Master TOEFL Vocabulary, used as a self-tutor, will help you improve. On the TOEFL iBT 00_TOE Longman English grammar practice. Pearson Education, 10 Bank Street, White Plains, NY Staff credits: The people who made up the Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL iBT® Test.

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Longman Toefl Ibt Pdf

Longman Preparation for the TOEFL iBT Test, Third Edition. Welcome to the website for Longman Preparation for the TOEFL iBT Test, Third Edition. Click on the. Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL(R) Test: Next Generation (iBT) with Answer Key without CD-ROM. Read more. DOWNLOAD PDF Answer Key for Longman TOEFL iBT Longman Complete Course for the Toefl Test: Preparation for the Computer and Paper Tests.

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Authenticity of practice material: C Amount of practice material: B- Skill building material: Longman Preparation has a lot of material. Each chapter breaks up the individual question types, such as vocabulary questions in the reading or task four in the speaking, and gives many examples of each.

As the book goes through those individual question types, it gives advice for each question and provides many test-like exercises. But quantity is less important than quality, and this is why I recommend other books above this book.

The core problem is that the passages are too easy. The texts, for one, are often about topics which students will already be familiar with. But in Longman , you will read about topics like these:. This is even more true in the listening.

The speakers make simple statements often, and repeat themselves too much. Uhh, the present Salt Lake is much bigger than Lake Bonneville was. Are you sure? Do you wanna try again? Oh, did I get it backward? What did I say? Lake Bonneville was much larger than the Great Salt Lake is today. You got it this time.

Notice how they repeat the correct information a few times in that short conversation. And this excerpt happens after almost a full minute of the class already talking about how Lake Bonneville was bigger. A fact like this on the real TOEFL would be said very quickly, in just a line or two, or it would provide more detail in more complicated language.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the previous sentence refers to performers of today wearing leotards, but the reference They enjoyed is to performers in the past. Answer choice B is incorrect because there is no clear reference for They.

Answer choice C is incorrect because the sentence before discusses the costumes performers wore before Hower wore his underwear. One of these accidental inventions is the leotard, a close-fitting, one-piece garment worn today by dancers, gymnasts and acrobats, as well as practitioners of Pilates, yoga and other forms of exercise. They enjoyed the comfort of performing in underwear rather than costumes. Answer choice C is correct because It refers to the tastiness of the frozen drink.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the pronoun It does not have a clear reference in the previous sentence.

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Answer choice B is incorrect because the previous sentence does not mention that Epperson tasted the drink. The inventions of various new foods and beverages have also come about through serendipity. It was a taste sensation that stayed on his mind. Answer choice A is correct because This refers to improvements to existing products that increase their functionality or practical use.

Answer choice B is incorrect because both this sentence and the previous sentence give details of the development of Teflon, so both need to follow the inserted sentence. Answer choice C is incorrect because After cutting open the bottle refers to Plunkett, so should stay connected to the previous sentence that started describing his actions.

Some accidental discoveries have resulted in improvements to already existing products that increase their functionality or practical use for individual consumers. Teflon is a prime example of this. Answer choice D is correct because the phrase The iconic commercial refers to advertised as strong enough to attach and hang a car from a crane.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the phrase The iconic commercial has no clear reference. Answer choice B is incorrect because the phrase The iconic commercial has no clear reference. Answer choice C is incorrect because the phrase The iconic commercial has no clear reference.

During World War II, scientists were striving to create materials to make plastic gun sights for soldiers that provided exceptionally clear visibility. Passage 4, p.

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Answer choice B is correct because the conjunction But introduces the contrast between the belief that air was a single element and the idea that air had more than one element. Answer choice A is incorrect because the conjunction But indicates a contrast in ideas between the idea of two elements in air and another idea.

This sentence presents a similar idea to the inserted sentence. Answer choice C is incorrect because the pronoun it has no clear reference in the inserted sentence.

Answer choice D is incorrect because this sentence mentions the three discovered elements, but the inserted sentence only mentions two elements. Up until that decade, air was believed to be a single element. But after the determination that air was composed of multiple elements, new measuring techniques evolved, allowing scientists to recognize that there was something else besides the two known elements present in air.

Answer choice C is correct because the phrase This process refers to chilling air until it became a liquid, and then heating the liquid to catch the gases that boiled off. Answer choice B incorrect because the phrase This process is not referred to in the previous sentence. Answer choice D is incorrect because This process does not refer to adding an electrical charge.

Ramsay later went on to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering all of the noble gases. They named it for the Greek word neos, which means new. Although neon is a colorless gas under normal conditions, when an electrical discharge is passed through it, it generates an incredibly bright reddish-orange hue.

This process of separating out parts of a mixture through collection of vapors is called fractional distillation. Answer choice A is correct because the sentence before the inserted sentence introduces the idea of the three isotopes. The inserted sentence mentions the isotopes by name. Answer choice C is incorrect because the sentence before discusses the weight of neon, but not its isotopes. It is a monatomic element, comprised of a single atom it forms no compounds.

Neon has three stable isotopes, all of which are produced in the formation of stars. The stable isotopes of neon are Ne, Ne, and Ne Researchers believe this suggests a solar neon reservoir inside Earth. The first American equivalent was lit in at a Los Angeles Packard car dealership. Another commercial use of neon is in cryogenic refrigeration, which cools items to very low temperatures. It has 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium, and 3 times that of liquid hydrogen.

Other uses of the element include the production of high-voltage indicators and—prior to the advent of LCD flat screens—television tubes. Reading Skills — Review Passage, p. Answer choice D is correct because the inserted sentence builds on the idea that Dreiser had become an architect of a new genre by stating that it set a new path for future writers. Answer choice A is incorrect because the sentence is the first reference to the novel that is mentioned in the inserted sentence, so the phrase This forceful novel should follow the sentence, not come before it.

Answer choice B is incorrect because although the previous sentence does mention Sister Carrie, the focus of the sentence is the author, not the novel, and so This cannot be a referent. Answer choice C is incorrect. The previous sentence discusses the writing of the time period, and contrasts with the idea of a forceful first novel. Answer choice A is correct because the sentence states Dreiser was born in into a large family whose fortunes had in the recent past taken a dramatic turn for the worse.

The phrase a turn for the worse means that the situation has gotten worse.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the sentence does not discuss disease or the health of the family members. Answer choice B is correct because the sentence states In his work as a reporter, he was witness to the seamier side of life and was responsible for recording events that befell the less fortunate in the city, the beggars, the alcoholics, the prostitutes, and the working poor.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the sentence does not mention that Dreiser was a witness in court trials. Answer choice D is incorrect because the sentence states that he recorded events that happened to these people, not that he worked with them.

Answer choice C is correct because the phrase At this young age refers to the age of sixteen in the previous sentence. Answer choice A is incorrect because the inserted sentence mentions a man moving alone and supporting himself at a young age, while the previous sentence makes no mention of a specific age.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the inserted sentence states At this young age, which does not have a clear reference in the previous sentence. Answer choice D is incorrect because the previous sentence mentions that Dreiser went back to Chicago, but the inserted sentence mentions the first time he moved to Chicago, not the second. Dreiser was born in into a large family whose fortunes had in the recent past taken a dramatic turn for the worse.

At this young age, he moved alone to Chicago and supported himself by taking odd jobs. In his work as a reporter, he was witness to the seamier side of life and was responsible for recording events that befell the less fortunate in the city, the beggars, the alcoholics, the prostitutes, and the working poor.

Answer choice B is correct because the words It was… unusual… to achieve so much so quickly refers to the idea the first four short stories that he wrote were published.

Answer choice A is incorrect because there is no clear reference for the pronoun it. It was rather unusual for a novice writer to achieve so much so quickly. Answer choice C is correct because the sentence states As Carrie progresses from factory worker to Broadway star by manipulating anyone in her path, Dreiser sends a clear message about the tragedy of life that is devoted purely to the quest for money. Answer choice D is incorrect because Since Carrie is a character in a novel, Dreiser could not give her a warning.

Answer choice B is correct because the phrase These changes refers to the revisions that the publishers asked Dreiser to make. Answer choice A is incorrect because the previous sentence does not mention changes made to the novel.

Answer choice C is incorrect because the previous sentence does not mention changes made to the novel. Answer choice D is incorrect because the previous sentence does not mention changes made to the novel.

Sister Carrie, unfortunately for Dreiser, did not achieve immediate success. These changes were intended to tone down some of the starker and more scandalous descriptions. Answer choice D is correct because the sentence states Having sunk to a point where he was considering suicide, he was sent by his brother to a sanatorium in White Plains, New York, where he eventually recovered. Answer choice A is incorrect because the sentence states that Dreiser considered suicide, not that he actually tried to kill himself.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the sentence states that Dreiser went to a sanatorium, not that his brother went to a sanatorium. Answer choice C is incorrect because the sentence states that Dreiser considered committing suicide before he went to the sanatorium, not after. Answer choice D is correct because the sentence states The recognition that accompanied the success of the novel was based not only on the power of the description Phillips: Answer choice A is incorrect because the sentence does not mention that Dreiser recognized the power of urban life or the trends that were within it.

It states that recognition went along with the success. Since his position was as an editor, the company obviously published materials of some kind. Answer choice A is incorrect because the previous sentence mentions a sanatorium, which refers to a mental hospital, not a company.

Answer choice C is incorrect because the previous sentence mentions a publishing company that published his novel Sister Carrie. Therefore, it was not a publisher of magazines that covered sewing and clothing patterns. After the failure of the novel that was so meaningful to him, Dreiser suffered a nervous breakdown; he was depressed, stricken with severe headaches, and unable to sleep for days on end. Having sunk to a point where he was considering suicide, he was sent by his brother to a sanatorium in White Plains, New York, where he eventually recovered.

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This company was one that published magazines to promote sewing and the sale of clothing patterns. The recognition that accompanied the success of the novel was based not only on the power of the description of the perils of urban life but also on the new trend in literature that Dreiser was credited with establishing. Reading Review Exercise Skills , p. Answer choice C is correct because the sentence states What made this pattern unusual was that, unlike other radio signals from celestial objects, this series of pulses had a highly regular period of 1.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the sentence states that there are other radio signals from objects in space, which implies that researchers have heard those signals.

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Answer choice B is incorrect because the sentence states that there are other radio signals from objects in space. Answer choice B is correct because the sentence states Because… the pulses came from the same place among the stars… they could not have come from a local source such as an Earth satellite. Both parts of the sentence mention coming from a location, which indicates they refers to the pulses. Answer choice A is incorrect because the sentence states they could not have come from a local source such as an Earth satellite, which indicates they does not refer to time.

Answer choice C is incorrect because they could not have come from a local source such as an Earth satellite. The sentence would not need to state stars do not come from an Earth satellite, since this is common knowledge. Answer choice D is incorrect because the sentence states they could not have come from a local source such as an Earth satellite, which indicates they does not refer to people. Answer choice D is correct because the previous sentence states the name pulsar was selected and the sentence states This name was selected because it indicates a regularly pulsing radio source.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the sentence starts with this name, which means the previous sentence has to mention the specific name.

Since the following sentence states A name was needed, it indicates that the name has not been mentioned previously. Answer choice B is incorrect because the sentence starts with this name, which means the previous sentence has to mention the specific name.

Answer choice C is incorrect because the sentence states This name was selected because it indicates a regularly pulsing radio source. Answer choice B is correct because the sentence states As more and more pulsars were found, astronomers engaged in debates over their nature, which indicates the nature, or pulsars. Answer choice A is incorrect because the sentence states astronomers engaged in debates over their nature, which indicates astronomers were talking about the characteristics of objects, not time.

Answer choice C is incorrect because the sentence states astronomers engaged in debates over their nature. Astronomers are having the debates; they are not the topic of the debates. Answer choice D is incorrect because the sentence states their nature. The nature of other objects is being described. Answer choice A is correct because the sentence states However, this idea was also rejected because the fastest pulsar known at the time pulsed around thirty times per second and a white dwarf, which is the smallest known type of star, would not hold together if it were to spin that fast.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the sentence states that pulsars spin faster than white dwarfs; white dwarfs will fall apart from spinning too fast. Answer choice C is incorrect because the sentence does not mention whether or not white dwarfs can be a dying star. In fact, the previous sentence states that white dwarfs are dying stars. Answer choice D is incorrect because the sentence states that pulsars spin faster than white dwarfs. Answer choice A is correct because the sentence states Several hypotheses have been developed around the concept that neutron stars are what form after a supernova explosion, which results in a subsequent implosion of the remaining matter.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the sentence states that a neutron star implodes, not explodes. Answer choice C is incorrect because the sentence states that neutron stars come from a supernova explosion, not that a supernova comes from a neutron star explosion.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the sentence does not state that several neutron stars come from a single supernova. Find Factual Information, pp. Answer choice D is correct because the first sentence states Crescent-shaped Lake Baikal, indicating that the lake resembles the shape of a crescent, the common shape of a new moon. Answer choice A is incorrect because the first sentence of the paragraph states the length at miles and the width at 46 miles.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the first sentence states it is in the shape of a crescent, not a circle. Answer choice C is incorrect because the first sentence of the paragraph states the length at miles and the width at 46 miles, which does not equate to one-half the length of the lake. Answer choice C is correct because the sentence states The average depth of the lake is 1, feet meters below sea level, and the Olkhon Crevice, the lowest known point of the lake, is more than 5, feet 1, meters deep.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the last sentence of the paragraph states that the Olkhon Crevice is part of the lake. Answer choice B is incorrect because the last sentence states that the average depth of the lake is meters below sea level, not the depth of the Olkhon Crevice.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the last sentence states that the crevice is more than 5, feet, which converts to 1, meters. Answer choice B is correct because the second sentence states It began forming 25 million years ago as Asia started splitting apart in a series of great faults. Answer choice C is incorrect because the second sentence states that the lake began forming 25 million years ago, not that it was completely formed then.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the first sentence states that the lake is located near the center of the peninsula, not on the edge. Answer choice D is correct because the last sentence states However, these adventurous travelers put themselves at great risk for frostbite and hypothermia, since the large, flat open expanse of the lake allowed the cold wind to blow unhindered across its surface. Answer choice A is incorrect because the last sentence of the paragraph states that the flat, open expanse of the lake allowed the cold wind to blow unhindered.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the first sentence states that temperatures fluctuate from below freezing up to 14 degrees Celsius. Answer choice C is correct because the second sentence states This led a variety of investors, ranging from those interested in tourism and environmental preservation to those looking to develop new energy resources, to survey the area and introduce a wide range of commercial opportunities into the region.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the third sentence of the paragraph states that investors interested in tourism put their money into the lake area.

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Answer choice B is incorrect because the last sentence states that the exploitation of natural resources has been largely restricted. Answer choice D is incorrect because the last sentence states that access to natural resources has been limited to preserve the natural beauty of the area. Answer choice B is correct because the third sentence states Because it was built right on the shoreline, it discharged chemical waste directly into the lake.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the third sentence of the paragraph states that the company polluted the lake when it discharged chemical waste directly into the lake, which a progressive company would not do. Answer choice C is incorrect because although the paragraph says it closed once because of a lack of revenue, it also states in the last sentence that it… resumed production in , with support from the federal government. Answer choice D is incorrect because the fourth sentence states that decades of protest from area residents had little effect.

Answer choice D is correct because the second sentence states Environmental activists and concerned local citizens worked together to keep the pipeline out of the valley. Answer choice A is incorrect because the fourth sentence of the paragraph states that the government stepped in to have the company move the pipeline from the Lake Baikal area.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the second sentence states that the activists wanted the pipeline kept out of the valley altogether. Answer choice C is incorrect because the third sentence mentions consistent seismic activity, but the paragraph does not state that there were earthquakes during the protest.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the second sentence of the paragraph states that stamps were proposed in Answer choice B is incorrect because the second sentence of the paragraph states that stamps were proposed in Answer choice D is incorrect because the second half of the nineteenth century refers to the years after , but the stamps were first suggested in Answer choice A is correct because the last sentence of the paragraph states He stated that they should not be based on the distance that a letter or package travels but should instead be based on the weight of the parcel and that fees for postal services should be collected in advance of the delivery, rather than after, through the use of postage stamps.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the last sentence states that the rates should not be based on the distance. Answer choice C is incorrect because the last sentence states that the fees should be based on the weight of the parcel. Answer choice D is incorrect because the last sentence states that the fees should be collected in advance of the delivery, rather than after.

Answer choice D is correct because the fourth sentence draws a conclusion from the lack of restrictions mentioned in the previous sentence and states This created cumbersome loads of mail for postal workers to deliver, and the issue was compounded if the recipient refused to pay, which rendered the mail undeliverable.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the third and fourth sentences state that a lack of restrictions on the size of packages created cumbersome loads for mail carriers. Answer choice B is incorrect because the first sentence states that the recipient was usually charged when the mail was delivered, and the last sentence states that if the recipient refused to pay, the mail was not delivered.

The paragraph does not state that it was returned to the sender. Answer choice C is incorrect because the third sentence states that there was no incentive to… to put restrictions on the size or amount of parcels. Answer choice A is incorrect because the second sentence states the first stamp featured a portrait of Queen Victoria, but the paragraph does not mention who designed the stamp. Answer choice B is incorrect because the second sentence states that the stamp featured a portrait of Queen Victoria.

Answer choice C is incorrect because the third sentence states that the stamp came in sheets, but does not mention how many stamps there were per sheet. Answer choice B is correct because the second sentence states In , Brazil was the next nation to produce national postage stamps, and various areas in what is today Switzerland also produced postage stamps later in the same year. Answer choice A is incorrect because the previous paragraphs mention that England was the first country to use stamps.

The first sentence of this paragraph states that other countries followed suit within a few years of the inception of the English stamp. Answer choice C is incorrect because the second sentence states that Brazil started using stamps in , while the third sentence states that the U.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the second sentence states that Brazil started using stamps shortly before Switzerland. Answer choice C is correct because the third sentence states Postage stamps in five- and ten-cent denominations were first approved by the U. Congress in , and by postage stamps were being issued in more than ninety governmental jurisdictions worldwide.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the third sentence states that the US started with stamps in five- and ten-cent amounts in Answer choice D is incorrect because the penny black stamp is mentioned in paragraph three, and was offered by England, not the US.

Answer choice C is correct because the second sentence states that perforations between the individual stamps were included on the sheets. The next sentence states these perforations greatly increased the ease and speed of separating individual stamps. Answer choice A is incorrect because the paragraph does not mention whether or not scissors were included with sheets of stamps, although it does state in the fourth sentence that scissors were no longer needed.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the sixth sentence states that countries began to use the stamps to display… plants and wildlife, celebrities and even icons instead of national leaders and heroes.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the paragraph does not mention that the variety of different images were on one sheet. Answer choice A is correct because the second sentence states Serious collectors track down stamps with diverse images, especially stamps that have not been separated from their sheets, or stamps that have a clean postmark.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the paragraph does not state that any stamps have decreased in value. Answer choice C is incorrect because the last sentence states that Stamps issued in limited runs are worth more because there are fewer of them in circulation.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the paragraph mentions stamps with limited runs, but does not mention stamps with unlimited runs. Answer choice D is correct because the second sentence states While this claim has been discredited due to more recent discoveries of earlier groups of people, the fact remains that the Clovis people were influential in the development of tribes, or groups of people that lived, socialized and created family units, across the North American continent.

Answer choice A is incorrect because although the first sentence states that the Clovis culture was considered to be the earliest native culture in the Americas, the next sentence states this claim has been discredited due to more recent discoveries of earlier groups of people. Answer choice B is incorrect because the last sentence states the Clovis existed between 13,, years ago.

Answer choice C is incorrect because the third sentence states Several later tribes are thought to have derived from the Clovis, not that the Clovis came from other groups. Answer choice B is correct because the first sentence states The Clovis people were initially identified and grouped together by the tools that archeologists found at various sites.

Answer choice A is incorrect because no date is mentioned in the paragraph. Answer choice C is incorrect because the first sentence states that the tools were discovered at various sites. Answer choice D is incorrect because the second sentence states that the tools were first discovered in Answer choice C is correct because the third sentence states The tools are quite sophisticated and the following sentence states Their development indicates a relatively superior knowledge and use of the technology available to people at that time.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the third sentence states that the tools were sophisticated, which is the opposite of rudimentary. Answer choice B is incorrect because the third sentence states that the tools are unlike any tools… found in the Old World. Answer choice D is incorrect because the third sentence states that the tools are unlike any tools… found in the Old World. Answer choice D is correct because the fourth sentence states that They traveled in groups of 40 to 50 individuals, migrating seasonally and returning to the same hunting camps each year.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the fourth sentence states that the Clovis people traveled in groups of forty to fifty. Answer choice B is incorrect because the last sentence states that the Clovis population increased rapidly.

Answer choice C is incorrect because the second sentence states that the Clovis finds suggest the Clovis spread rapidly throughout the North American continent. Answer choice A is correct because the first sentence mentions another theory and the third sentence states Thus, instead of the Clovis people dominating the region, perhaps the initial tribe remained relatively small and stationary, while their tools were passed and replicated from tribe to tribe.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the last sentence mentions that the Clovis may have spread their tools through trade; invasions and conflict; and intermarriage. Answer choice C is incorrect because the paragraph mentions instead of the Clovis people dominating the region, but does not state that another tribe dominated in their place. Answer choice D is incorrect because the last sentence states that the Clovis people may have passed tools through trade with neighboring tribes.

Answer choice C is correct because the third sentence states Thus, instead of the Clovis people dominating the region, perhaps the initial tribe remained relatively small and stationary, while their tools were passed and replicated from tribe to tribe.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the third sentence states that the Clovis tribe may have stayed in one place while their tools were passed and replicated, which indicates the tribe still existed as the tools spread throughout the area.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the second sentence states that researchers think the tools might have been rapidly adopted. Longman Preparation for the TOEFL iBT Test, 3e Answer Key 44 Answer choice D is incorrect because although the last sentence states a few possibilities for how the tools spread, the paragraph does not state any information about the tools being offered to their neighbors.

Answer choice B is correct because the first sentence states Just as the knowledge of how the tools of the Clovis culture spread is uncertain, so the manner in which the Clovis people disappeared remains a mystery. Answer choice A is incorrect because the paragraph does not mention that the Clovis people had difficulty growing their own food. Answer choice D is incorrect because the third sentence states that the possible cooling period lasted about 1, years. Answer choice B is correct because the last sentence states These points of concession bolster the reputation of the Clovis as a dominant force in their era, and provide essential information about the evolution of native tribes in the Western hemisphere.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the pace of the Clovis people is not mentioned or compared to that of other tribes. Answer choice C is incorrect because the paragraph does not discuss how the Clovis people adapted to other cultures. Answer choice A is correct because the second sentence of the first paragraph states A typical brown dwarf has a mass that is 8 percent or less than that of the Sun.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the last sentence of the first paragraph states that the mass of a brown dwarf cannot produce the internal heat necessary to release energy and light. Answer choice C is incorrect because the last sentence of the first paragraph states the brown dwarf is not able to ignite nuclear burning. Answer choice D is incorrect because the last sentence of the first paragraph states a brown dwarf cannot release energy and light.

Answer choice B is correct because the first sentence states A brown dwarf contracts at a steady rate, and after it has contracted as much as possible, a process that takes about 1 million years, it begins to cool off.

Answer choice A is incorrect because the first sentence states that it begins to cool off after about 1 million years. Answer choice C is incorrect because the first sentence of the paragraph states that it does not start to cool off until it has contracted as much as possible.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the first sentence of the paragraph states that it contracts before it cools off. Answer choice A is correct because the last sentence of the paragraph states Its emission of light diminishes with the decrease in its internal temperature, and after a period of 2 to 3 billion years, its emission of light is so weak that it can be difficult to observe from Earth. Answer choice C is incorrect because the paragraph does not mention that the light grows in strength when it is weak.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the last sentence states that the brown dwarf may be difficult to observe, but not that it is impossible to see and study.

Answer choice C is correct because the second sentence states A brown dwarf is quite distinctive because its surface temperature is relatively cool and because its internal composition—approximately 75 percent hydrogen—has remained essentially the same as it was when first formed. Answer choice A is incorrect because the second sentence states that the amount of hydrogen stays essentially the same. Answer choice B is incorrect because the second sentence states that the amount of hydrogen stays essentially the same as it was when first formed.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the second sentence states that its internal composition… has remained essentially the same. Answer choice D is correct because the third sentence states However, brown dwarfs almost never reach an internal temperature high enough to burn off the majority of the lithium so its presence in more than trace amounts signals to scientists that they are likely observing a brown dwarf candidate. Answer choice A is incorrect because the first sentence states that lithium is used to distinguish brown dwarfs from other stars, especially those with a low mass similar to brown dwarfs.

Answer choice B is incorrect because the third sentence states that brown dwarfs rarely get hot enough to burn off the majority of the lithium. Answer choice C is incorrect because the fifth sentence states that some brown dwarfs may burn off lithium without being hot enough to ignite hydrogen.

Answer choice C is correct because the third sentence states The planet Jupiter, for example, is the largest planet in our solar system with a mass times that of our planet and resembles a brown dwarf in that it radiates energy based on its internal energy. The following sentence states In addition, Jupiter has more or less the same radius as most brown dwarfs. English ISBN New to the Third Edition: New guidelines and strategies for note-taking.

New tips and hints throughout the practice sections. Access to MyEnglishLab: Updated material for all the new types of test passages and questions. Diagnostic pre-tests and post-tests that allow students to identify strengths and weaknesses and assess improvement in each section. Practice for all four skills: Reading provides practice exercises in the new test formats, including filling in a table or chart and paraphrasing.

Listening provides authentic conversations in an academic setting and academic lectures with new 4. Speaking includes personal and expository tasks and integrated tasks. Writing consists of writing and expository tasks. Two complete Practice Tests that familiarize students with the actual test format, including length and level of difficulty. If you want to download this book, click link in the last page 6. You just clipped your first slide!

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