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Ambiguity example[ edit ] The transmitter alternately sends packets marked "odd" and "even". The acknowledgments likewise say "odd" and "even". Suppose that the transmitter, having sent an odd packet, did not wait for an odd acknowledgment, and instead immediately sent the following even packet. It might then receive an acknowledgment saying "expecting an odd packet next".
This would leave the transmitter in a quandary: has the receiver received both of the packets, or neither? The receiver refuses to accept any packet but the next one in sequence.
If a packet is lost in transit, following packets are ignored until the missing packet is retransmitted, a minimum loss of one round trip time.
For this reason, it is inefficient on links that suffer frequent packet loss. Ambiguity example[ edit ] Suppose that we are using a 3-bit sequence number, such as is typical for HDLC. This is because, after transmitting 7 packets, there are 8 possible results: Anywhere from 0 to 7 packets could have been received successfully.
This is 8 possibilities, and the transmitter needs enough information in the acknowledgment to distinguish them all.
If the transmitter sent 8 packets without waiting for acknowledgment, it could find itself in a quandary similar to the stop-and-wait case: does the acknowledgment mean that all 8 packets were received successfully, or none of them?
This requires a much more capable receiver, which can accept packets with sequence numbers higher than the current nr and store them until the gap is filled in. The advantage, however, is that it is not necessary to discard following correct data for one round-trip time before the transmitter can be informed that a retransmission is required.
The window size wr need only be larger than the number of consecutive lost packets that can be tolerated.
Ambiguity example[ edit ] The extremely popular HDLC protocol uses a 3-bit sequence number, and has optional provision for selective repeat. However, it is also possible that the transmitter failed to receive any acknowledgments and has retransmitted packet 0.
In this latter case, the receiver would accept the wrong packet as packet 8. With this restriction, the receiver knows that if all acknowledgments were lost, the transmitter would have stopped after packet 5. Extensions[ edit ] There are many ways that the protocol can be extended: The above examples assumed that packets are never reordered in transmission; they may be lost in transit error detection makes corruption equivalent to loss , but will never appear out of order.
The protocol can be extended to support packet reordering, as long as the distance can be bounded; the sequence number modulus N must be expanded by the maximum misordering distance. It is possible to not acknowledge every packet, as long as an acknowledgment is sent eventually if there is a pause.
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