Within the framework of the Energy Conservation Act, there is a provision to introduce energy managers as well as energy auditors. These powers and functions of the Bureau are expressed in Chapter IV, Section 13(o) GUIDE BOOKS. The following is the list of “Bureau of Energy Efficiency Books” which are recommended for the “Bureau of Energy Efficiency” (BEEE ). Guide Books for National Certification Examination General Aspects of Energy Management and Energy Audit. Paper- Energy Efficiency in Electrial Utilities.
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Bureau of Energy Efficiency. 1. Energy Scenario. The primary energy consumption for few of the developed and developing countries are shown in Table bee book - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. bee Agencies, Schemes of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)- ECBC, S&L, DSM. The Energy Efficiency Guidebook for industries is a comprehensive resource to help industries adopt, develop and implement energy efficiency programs. Paper Issued by Regional Bureau for Arab States Arab Human Development Report Industrial Energy Audit Guide Book: Guidelines for conducting an Energy.
For example, all the village streets are lit by solar lights. Each light has a separate solar panel. In the village was afflicted by drought, poverty prevailed, and illicit liquor trade was widespread. The village tank could not hold water as the embankment dam wall leaked.
Work began with the percolation tank construction. Hazare encouraged the villagers to donate their labor to repair the embankment. Once this was fixed, the seven wells below filled with water in the summer for the first time in memory. Now the village has water year round, as well as a grain bank, a milk bank, and a school. There is no longer any poverty. The World Bank Group has concluded that the village of Ralegan Siddi was transformed from a highly degraded village ecosystem in a semi-arid region of extreme poverty to one of the richest in the country.
The Ralegan Siddi example, now 25 years old, by demonstrating that it is possible to rebuild natural capital in partnership with the local economy, is a model for the r General Imprint: September Editors: Books Llc Creators: Books Llc Dimensions: Paperback - Trade Pages: Books Promotions LSN: Review This Product No reviews yet - be the first to create one!
Need help? Partners MySchool Discovery. Subscribe to our newsletter Some error text Name. Email address subscribed successfully. A activation email has been sent to you. Energy Conservation can, therefore, be the result of several processes or developments, such as productivity increase or technological progress.
On the other hand Energy efficiency is achieved when energy intensity in a specific product, process or area of production or consumption is reduced without affecting output, consumption or comfort levels. Promotion of energy efficiency will contribute to energy conservation and is thereFigure 1. Energy efficiency is often viewed as a resource option like coal, oil or natural gas. It provides additional economic value by preserving the resource base and reducing pollution.
Pollution levels also reduce by the same amount refer Figure 1. Nature sets some basic limits on how efficiently energy can be used, but in most cases our products and manufacturing processes are still a long way from operating at this theoretical limit. Very simply, energy efficiency means using less energy to perform the same function. Although, energy efficiency has been in practice ever since the first oil crisis in , it has today assumed even more importance because of being the most cost-effective and reliable means of mitigating the global climatic change.
Recognition of that potential has led to high expectations for the control of future CO2 emissions through even more energy efficiency improvements than have occurred in the past. The industrial sector accounts for some 41 per cent of global primary energy demand and approximately the same share of CO2 emissions.
The Bureau of Energy Efficiency. The various components of these strategies are listed below: Immediate-term strategy:. Efficiency in production systems and reduction in distribution losses, including those in traditional energy sources. Medium-term strategy:. Demand management through greater conservation of energy, optimum fuel mix, structural changes in the economy, an appropriate model mix in the transport sector, i.
There is need to shift to less energy-intensive modes of transport. This would include measures to improve the transport infrastructure viz. Similarly, better urban planning would also reduce the demand for energy use in the transport sector. There is need to move away from non-renewable to renewable energy sources viz. Long-term strategy: Improving energy infrastructure Building new refineries Creation of urban gas transmission and distribution network Maximizing efficiency of rail transport of coal production.
Building new coal and gas fired power stations. Enhancing energy efficiency Improving energy efficiency in accordance with national, socio-economic, and environmental priorities Promoting of energy efficiency and emission standards Labeling programmes for products and adoption of energy efficient technologies in large industries. Deregulation and privatization of energy sector Reducing cross subsidies on oil products and electricity tariffs Decontrolling coal prices and making natural gas prices competitive Privatization of oil, coal and power sectors for improved efficiency.
Streamlining approval process for attracting private sector participation in power generation, transmission and distribution. The Act provides the much-needed legal framework and institutional arrangement for embarking on an energy efficiency drive. The Bureau would be responsible for implementation of policy programmes and coordination of implementation of energy conservation activities.
Important features of the Energy Conservation Act are: Bureau of Energy Efficiency. Evolve minimum energy consumption and performance standards for notified equipment and appliances. Prohibit manufacture, sale and import of such equipment, which does not conform to the standards. Introduce a mandatory labeling scheme for notified equipment appliances to enable consumers to make informed choices Disseminate information on the benefits to consumers.
A cadre of professionally qualified energy managers and auditors with expertise in policy analysis, project management, financing and implementation of energy efficiency projects would be developed through Certification and Accreditation programme.
BEE to design training modules, and conduct a National level examination for certification of energy managers and energy auditors. Energy Conservation Building Codes: The BEE would prepare guidelines for Energy Conservation Building Codes ECBC ; These would be notified to suit local climate conditions or other compelling factors by the respective states for commercial buildings erected after the rules relating to energy conservation building codes have been notified.
In addition, these buildings should have a connected load of kW or contract demand of kVA and above and are intended to be used for commercial purposes; Energy audit of specific designated commercial building consumers would also be prescribed.
Central Energy Conservation Fund: The EC Act provisions in this case are: The fund would be set up at the centre to develop the delivery mechanism for large-scale adoption of energy efficiency services such as performance contracting and promotion of energy service companies. It would support the creation of facilities for testing and development and to promote consumer awareness.
The mission of Bureau of Energy Efficiency is to institutionalize energy efficiency services, enable delivery mechanisms in the country and provide leadership to energy efficiency in all sectors of economy. The primary objective would be to reduce energy intensity in the Indian Economy.
The general superintendence, directions and management of the affairs of the Bureau is vested in the Governing Council with 26 members. The Council is headed by Union Minister of Power and consists of members represented by Secretaries of various line Ministries, the CEOs of technical agencies under the Ministries, members representing equipment and appliance manufacturers, industry, architects, consumers and five power regions representing the states.
The Director General of the Bureau shall be the ex-officio member-secretary of the Council. The BEE will be initially supported by the Central Government by way of grants through budget, it will, however, in a period of years become self-sufficient. It would be authorized to collect appropriate fee in discharge of its functions assigned to it. The BEE will also use the Central Energy Conservation Fund and other funds raised from various sources for innovative financing of energy efficiency projects in order to promote energy efficient investment.
Role of Bureau of Energy Efficiency The role of BEE would be to prepare standards and labels of appliances and equipment, develop a list of designated consumers, specify certification and accreditation procedure, prepare building codes, maintain Central EC fund and undertake promotional activities in co-ordination with center and state level agencies.
The role would include development of Energy service companies ESCOs , transforming the market for energy efficiency and create awareness through measures including clearing house.
Role of Central and State Governments: The following role of Central and State Government is envisaged in the Act. Central - to notify rules and regulations under various provisions of the Act, provide initial financial assistance to BEE and EC fund, Coordinate with various State Governments for notification, enforcement, penalties and adjudication. State - to amend energy conservation building codes to suit the regional and local climatic condition, to designate state level agency to coordinate, regulate and enforce provisions of the Act and constitute a State Energy Conservation Fund for promotion of energy efficiency.
Enforcement through Self-Regulation: Act would require inspection of only two items.
The following procedure of self-regulation is proposed to be adopted for verifying areas that require inspection of only two items that require inspection. The certification of energy consumption norms and standards of production process by the Accredited Energy Auditors is a way to enforce effective energy efficiency in Designated Consumers. For energy performance and standards, manufacturer's declared values would be checked in Accredited Laboratories by drawing sample from market.
Any manufacturer or consumer or consumer association can challenge the values of the other manufacturer and bring to the notice of BEE. BEE can recognize for challenge testing in disputed cases as a measure for self-regulation. Penalties and Adjudication: Penalty for each offence under the Act would be in monetary terms i.
The initial phase of 5 years would be promotional and creating infrastructure for implementation of Act. No penalties would be effective during this phase. The power to adjudicate has been vested with state Electricity Regulatory Commission which shall appoint any one of its member to be an adjudicating officer for holding an enquiry in connection with the penalty imposed.
CHAPTER IV, SECTION 13 Powers and Functions of Bureau 1 The Bureau shall, effectively co-ordinate with designated consumers, designated agencies and other agencies, recognise and utilise the existing resources and infrastructure, in performing the functions assigned to it by or under this Act 2 The Bureau may perform such functions and exercise such powers as may be assigned to it by or under this Act and in particular, such functions and powers include the function and power to a recommend to the Central Government the norms for processes and energy consumption standards required to be notified under clause a of section 14 ; b recommend to the Central Government the particulars required to be displayed on label on equipment or on appliances and manner of their display under clause d of section 14; Bureau of Energy Efficiency.
CHAPTER V, SECTION 14 Power of Central Government to Facilitate and Enforce Efficient use of Energy and its Conservation The Central Government may, by notification, in consultation with the Bureau, a specify the norms for processes and energy consumption standards for any equipment, appliances which consumes, generates, transmits or supplies energy; b specify equipment or appliance or class of equipments or appliances, as the case may be, for the purposes of this Act; c prohibit manufacture or sale or download or import of equipment or appliance specified under clause b unless such equipment or appliances conforms to energy consumption standards; Bureau of Energy Efficiency.
Provided that no notification prohibiting manufacture or sale or download or import or equipment or appliance shall be issued within two years from the date of notification issued under clause a of this section; direct display of such particulars on label on equipment or on appliance specified under clause b and in such manner as may be specified by regulations; specify, having regarding to the intensity or quantity of energy consumed and the amount of investment required for switching over to energy efficient equipments and capacity or industry to invest in it and availability of the energy efficient machinery and equipment required by the industry, any user or class of users of energy as a designated consumer for the purposes of this Act; alter the list of Energy Intensive Industries specified in the Schedule; establish and prescribe such energy consumption norms and standards for designated consumers as it may consider necessary: Provided that the powers under clauses p and s shall be exercised in consultation with the concerned State.
The Central Government or the State Government may, in the exercise of its powers and performance of its functions under this Act and for efficient use of energy and its conservation, issue such directions in writing as it deems fit for the purposes of this Act to any person, officer, authority or any designated consumer and such person, officer or authority or any designated consumer shall be bound to comply with such directions. Explanation - For the avoidance of doubts, it is hereby declared that the power to issue directions under this section includes the power to direct a regulation of norms for process and energy consumption standards in any industry or building or building complex; or b regulation of the energy consumption standards for equipment and appliances.
CHAPTER VIII, SECTION 26 Penalties and Adjudication 1 If any person fails to comply with the provision of clause c or the clause d or clause h or clause i or clause k or clause l or clause n or clause r or clause s of section 14 or clause b or clause c or clause h of section 15, he shall be liable to a penalty which shall not exceed ten thousand rupees for each such failures and, in the case of continuing failures, with an additional penalty which may extend to one thousand rupees for every day during which such failures continues: Provided that no person shall be liable to pay penalty within five years from the date of commencement of this Act.
Provided that where a State Commission has not been established in a State, the Government of that State shall appoint any of its officer not below the rank equivalent to a Secretary dealing with legal affairs in that State to be an adjudicating officer for the purposes of this section and such officer shall cease to be an adjudicating officer immediately on the appointment of an adjudicating officer by the State Commission on its establishment in that State: Provided further that where an adjudicating officer appointed by a State Government ceased to be an adjudicating officer, he shall transfer to the adjudicating officer appointed by the State Commission all matters being adjudicated by him and thereafter the adjudicating officer appointed by the State Commission shall adjudicate the penalties on such matters.
While adjudicating the quantum of penalty under section 26, the adjudicating officer shall have due regard to the following factors, namely: No civil court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which an adjudicating officer appointed under this Act or the Appellate Tribunal is empowered by or under this Act to determine and no injunction shall be granted by any court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act.
List of Energy Intensive Industries and other establishments specified as designated consumers Aluminium; Fertilizers; Iron and Steel; Cement; Pulp and paper; Chlor Akali; Sugar; Textile; Chemicals; Railways; Port Trust; Transport Sector industries and services ; Petrochemicals, Gas Crackers, Naphtha Crackers and Petroleum Refineries; Thermal Power Stations, hydel power stations, electricity transmission companies and distribution companies; Commercial buildings or establishments; Full version of this act may be obtained from www.
Define the following terms with three examples for each a Primary and Secondary Energy. The world oil reserves is expected to last another a years b 45 years c years d forever. What is the hydro power generation potential available in India, and how much is exploited so far?
What do you think of strategies required for long-term management of energy in India? Though Plant Respiration and Decomposition release more than ten times CO2 released by human activities, explain why CO2 is regarded as a potential threat to the planet.
The energy conservation act requires that all designated energy consumers should get energy audits conducted by a Energy manager b accredited energy auditor c managing director d char tered accountant. Name any three main provisions of the EC act, as applicable to the designated consumers. List the incorrect statement and correct the same.
The Energy Conservation Act, requires that a designated consumer to furnish to the designated agency, in such form and man ner and within such period as may be prescribed the information with regard to the energy downloadd and action taken on the recommendation of energy auditor.
Energy is the ability to do work and work is the transfer of energy from one form to another. In practical terms, energy is what we use to manipulate the world around us, whether by exciting our muscles, by using electricity, or by using mechanical devices such as automobiles.
Energy comes in different forms - heat thermal , light radiant , mechanical, electrical, chemical, and nuclear energy. There are two types of energy - stored potential energy and working kinetic energy. For example, the food we eat contains chemical energy, and our body stores this energy until we release it when we work or play. It exists in various forms.
Chemical Energy Chemical energy is the energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, propane and coal are examples of stored chemical energy. Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom - the energy that holds the nucleus together. The nucleus of a uranium atom is an example of nuclear energy. Stored Mechanical Energy Stored mechanical energy is energy stored in objects by the application of a force.
Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy. Gravitational Energy Gravitational energy is the energy of place or position. Water in a reservoir behind a hydropower dam is an example of gravitational energy. When the water is released to spin the turbines, it becomes motion energy. Radiant Energy Radiant energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves.
Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays, gamma rays and radio waves. Solar energy is an example of radiant energy. Thermal Energy Thermal energy or heat is the internal energy in substances- the vibration and movement of atoms and molecules within substances. Geothermal energy is an example of thermal energy. Motion The movement of objects or substances from one place to another is motion. Wind and hydropower are examples of motion.
Electrical Energy Electrical energy is the movement of electrons. Lightning and electricity are examples of electrical energy. The following is an example of the transformation of different types of energy into heat and power. More the number of conversion stages, lesser the overall energy efficiency. It is difficult to imagine spending an entire day without using energy. We use energy to light our cities and homes, to power machinery in factories, cook our food, play music, and operate our TV.
Even a small amount of electrical and chemical energy can do a great amount of work. The molecules or particles that store these forms of energy are highly ordered and compact and thus considered as high grade energy. High-grade energy like electricity is better used for high grade applications like melting of metals rather than simply heating of water. Low-Grade Energy Heat is low-grade energy.
Heat can still be used to do work example of a heater boiling water , but it rapidly dissipates. The molecules, in which this kind of energy is stored air and water molecules , are more randomly distributed than the molecules of carbon in a coal.
This disordered state of the molecules and the dissipated energy are classified as low-grade energy. Directional Direct Current A non-varying, unidirectional electric current Example: Current produced by batteries Characteristics:. Potential difference voltage between two points of the circuit does not change polarity with time Alternating Current A current which reverses in regularly recurring intervals of time and which has alternately positive and negative values, and occurring a specified number of times per second.
Household electricity produced by generators, Electricity supplied by utilities. In 50 cycle AC, current reverses direction times a second two times during onecycle Ampere A Current is the rate of flow of charge. The ampere is the basic unit of electric current. It is that current which produces a specified force between two parallel wires, which are 1 metre apart in a vacuum.
A potential of one volt appears across a resistance of one ohm when a current of one ampere flows through that resistance. The unit of resistance is ohm Ohm' Law Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across it, provided the temperature and other external conditions remain constant. Frequency The supply frequency tells us the cycles at which alternating current changes. The unit of frequency is hertz Hz: Kilovolt Ampere kVA It is the product of kilovolts and amperes.
This measures the electrical load on a circuit or system. It is also called the apparent power. Reactive power is the portion of apparent power that does no work.
This type of power must be supplied to all types of magnetic equipment, such as motors, transformers etc. Larger the magnetizing requirement, larger the kVAr. Kilowatt kW Active Power kW is the active power or the work-producing part of apparent power. When current lags the voltage like in inductive loads, it is called lagging power factor and when current leads the voltage like in capacitive loads, it is called leading power factor.
Inductive loads such as induction motors, transformers, discharge lamp, etc. Lower the power factor; electrical network is loaded with more current. It would be advisable to have highest power factor close to 1 so that network carries only active power which does real work.
PF improvement is done by installing capacitors near the load centers, which improve power factor from the point of installation back to the generating station. Kilowatt-hour kWh Kilowatt-hour is the energy consumed by Watts in one hour. If 1kW watts of a electrical equipment is operated for 1 hour, it would consume 1 kWh of energy 1 unit of electricity.
For a company, it is the amount of electrical units in kWh recorded in the plant over a month for billing purpose. Electricity Tariff Calculation of electric bill for a company Electrical utility or power supplying companies charge industrial customers not only based on the amount of energy used kWh but also on the peak demand kVA for each month.
Contract Demand Contract demand is the amount of electric power that a customer demands from utility in a specified interval. Unit used is kVA or kW. It is the amount of electric power that the consumer agreed upon with the utility. This would mean that utility has to plan for the specified capacity.
Maximum demand Maximum demand is the highest average kVA recorded during any one-demand interval within the month. The demand interval is normally 30 minutes, but may vary from utility to utility from 15 minutes to 60 minutes. Prediction of Load While considering the methods of load prediction, some of the terms used in connection with power supply must be appreciated.
Connected Load - is the nameplate rating in kW or kVA of the apparatus installed on a consumer's premises. Demand Factor - is the ratio of maximum demand to the connected load.
Load Factor - The ratio of average load to maximum load. The load factor can also be defined as the ratio of the energy consumed during a given period to the energy, which would have been used if the maximum load had been maintained throughout that period. For example, load factor for a day 24 hours will be given by: They encourage user to draw more power during off-peak hours say during night time and less power during peak hours.
As per their plan, they offer TOD Tariff, which may be incentives or disincentives. Energy meter will record peak and nonpeak consumption separately by timer control. TOD tariff gives opportunity for the user to reduce their billing, as off peak hour tariff charged are quite low in comparison to peak hour tariff. Three phase AC power measurement Most of the motive drives such as pumps, compressors, machines etc. Power consumption can be determined by using the relation. A 3-phase AC induction motor 20 kW capacity is used for pumping operation.
Electrical parameter such as current, volt and power factor were measured with power analyzer. Find energy consumption of motor in one hour? The voltage, amps and PF refer to the rated input parameters at full load. A three phase,10 kW motor has the name plate details as V, Actual input measurement shows V, 12 amps and 0.
Rated output at full load Rated input at full load The rated efficiency of motor at full load. Which applications use single-phase power in an industry? Single-phase power is mostly used for lighting, fractional HP motors and electric heater applications. A Watt mercury vapor lamp was switched on for 10 hours per day. The supply volt is V. Find the power consumption per day? An electric heater of V, 5 kW rating is used for hot water generation in an industry.
Temperature and Pressure Temperature and pressure are measures of the physical state of a substance. They are closely related to the energy contained in the substance. As a result, measurements of temperature and pressure provide a means of determining energy content.
Temperature It is the degree of hotness or coldness measured on a definite scale. Heat is a form of energy; temperature is a measure of its thermal effects. In other words, temperature is a means of determining sensible heat content of the substance In the Celsius scale the freezing point of water is 0C and the boiling point of water is C at atmospheric pressure.
When we heat a gas in a confined space, we create more force; a pressure increase. For example, heating the air inside a balloon will cause the balloon to stretch as the pressure increases. Pressure, therefore, is also indicative of stored energy. Steam at high pressures contains much more energy than at low pressures. Heat Heat is a form of energy, a distinct and measurable property of all matter.
The quantity of heat depends on the quantity and type of substance involved. Unit of Heat Calorie is the unit for measuring the quantity of heat.
It is the quantity of heat, which can raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1C. Calorie is too small a unit for many purposes. However, nowadays generally joule as the unit of heat energy is used.
It is the internationally accepted unit. Its relationship with calorie is as follows: This property is called the specific heat of a substance and is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance through 1C.
The specific heat of water is very high as compared to other common substances; it takes a lot of heat to raise the temperature of water. Also, when water is cooled, it gives out a large quantity of heat. TABLE 2. Sensible heat It is that heat which when added or subtracted results in a change of temperature.
Quantity of Heat The quantity of heat, Q, supplied to a substance to increase its temperature by tC depends on. The quantity of heat is given by: The fixed temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid is called its melting point. The change of a state from a liquid state to a gas is called vaporization.
Latent heat of fusion The latent heat of fusion of a substance is the quantity of heat required to convert 1kg solid to liquid state without change of temperature. It is represented by the symbol L. When 1 kg of steam at C condenses to form water at C, it gives out kJ kCals of heat. Steam gives out more heat than an equal amount of boiling water because of its latent heat. Latent heat It is the change in heat content of a substance, when its physical state is changed without a change in temperature.
Super Heat The heating of vapour, particularly saturated steam to a temperature much higher than the boiling point at the existing pressure. This is done in power plants to improve efficiency and to avoid condensation in the turbine. Humidity The moisture content of air is referred to as humidity and may be expressed in two ways: Specific Humidity It is the actual weight of water vapour mixed in a kg of dry air. Relative humidity given as a percentage is the actual water content of the air divided by the moisture content of fully saturated air at the existing temperature.
Dew Point It is the temperature at which condensation of water vapour from the air begins as the temperature of the air-water vapour mixture falls. Dry bulb Temperature It is an indication of the sensible heat content of air-water vapour mixtures.
Wet bulb Temperature It is a measure of total heat content or enthalpy. It is the temperature approached by the dry bulb and the dew point as saturation occurs. Dew Point Temperature It is a measure of the latent heat content of air-water vapour mixtures and since latent heat is a function of moisture content, the dew point temperature is determined by the moisture content.
Fuel Density Density is the ratio of the mass of the fuel to the volume of the fuel at a stated temperature. Specific gravity of fuel The density of fuel, relative to water, is called specific gravity. The specific gravity of water is defined as 1. As it is a ratio there are no units. Higher the specific gravity, higher will be the heating values. Viscosity The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its internal resistance to flow.
All liquid fuels decrease in viscosity with increasing temperature Calorific Value Energy content in an organic matter Calorific Value can be measured by burning it and measuring the heat released. This is done by placing a sample of known mass in a bomb calorimeter, a device that is completely sealed and insulated to prevent heat loss. A thermometer is placed inside but it can be read from the outside and the increase in temperature after the sample is burnt completely is measured.
From this data, energy content in the organic matter can be found out. The heating value of fuel is the measure of the heat released during the complete combustion of unit weight of fuel. The difference between GCV and NCV is the heat of vaporization of the moisture and atomic hydrogen conversion to water vapour in the fuel.
Heat Transfer Heat will always be transferred from higher temperature to lower temperature independent of the mode. The energy transferred is measured in Joules kcal or Btu. Heat is transferred by three primary modes: If one body is at a higher temperature than the other, the motion of the molecules in the hotter body will vibrate the molecules at the point of contact in the cooler body and consequently result in increase in temperature. The amount of heat transferred by conduction depends upon the temperature difference, the properties of the material involved, the thickness of the material, the surface contact area, and the duration of the transfer.
Good conductors of heat are typically substances that are dense as they have molecules close together. This allows the molecular agitation process to permeate the substance easily.
So, metals are good conductors of heat, while gaseous substance, having low densities or widely spaced molecules, are poor conductors of heat. Poor conductors of heat are usually called insulators. The measure of the ability of a substance to insulate is its thermal resistance. This is commonly referred to as the R-value RSI in metric. The R-value is generally the inverse of the thermal conductivity, the ability to conduct heat. Typical units of measure for conductive heat transfer are: Per unit area for a given thickness Metric SI: Watt W or kilowatts kW Convection The transfer of heat by convection involves the movement of a fluid such as a gas or liquid from the hot to the cold portion.
There are two types of convection: In case of natural convection, the fluid in contact with or adjacent to a high temperature body is heated by conduction. As it is heated, it expands, becomes less dense and consequently rises.
This begins a fluid motion process in which a circulating current of fluid moves past the heated body, continuously transferring heat away from it. In the case of forced convection, the movement of the fluid is forced by a fan, pump or other external means.
A centralized hot air heating system is a good example of forced convection. Convection depends on the thermal properties of the fluid as well as surface conditions at the body and other factors that affect the ability of the fluid to flow. With a low conductivity fluid such as air, a rough surface can trap air against the surface reducing the conductive heat Bureau of Energy Efficiency.
Units of measure for rate of convective heat transfer are: Metric SI. Thermal Radiation Thermal radiation is a process in which energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves similar to light waves. These waves may be both visible light and invisible.
A very common example of thermal radiation is a heating element on a heater. When the heater element is first switched on, the radiation is invisible, but you can feel the warmth it radiates.
As the element heats, it will glow orange and some of the radiation is now visible. The hotter the element, the brighter it glows and the more radiant energy it emits. The key processes in the interaction of a substance with thermal radiation are: Absorption the process by which radiation enters a body and becomes heat Transmission the process by which radiation passes through a body Reflection the process by which radiation is neither absorbed or transmitted through the body; rather it bounces off Objects receive thermal radiation when they are struck by electromagnetic waves, thereby agitating the molecules and atoms.
More agitation means more energy and a higher temperature. Energy is transferred to one body from another without contact or transporting medium such as air or water. In fact, thermal radiation heat transfer is the only form of heat transfer possible in a vacuum. All bodies emit a certain amount of radiation. The amount depends upon the body's temperature and nature of its surface.
Some bodies only emit a small amount of radiant energy for their temperature, commonly called low emissivity materials abbreviated low-E. Low-E windows are used to control the heat radiation in and out of buildings. Windows can be designed to reflect, absorb and transmit different parts of the sun's radiant energy. The condition of a body's surface will determine the amount of thermal radiation that is absorbed, reflected or re-emitted. Surfaces that are black and rough, such as black iron, will absorb and re-emit almost all the energy that strikes them.
Polished and smooth surfaces will not absorb, but reflect, a large part of the incoming radiant energy. People are cooled by evaporation of perspiration from the skin and refrigeration is accomplished by evaporating the liquid refrigerant. Evaporation is a cooling process. Condensation The change by which any substance is converted from a gaseous state to liquid state.
Condensation on the other hand is a heating process. As molecules of vapour condense and become liquid, their latent heat of vapourisation evidences itself again as sensible heat, indicated by a rise in temperature.
This heating effect of condensation is what causes the considerable rise in atmospheric temperature often noted as fog forms and as rain or snow begins to fall. Steam Steam has been a popular mode of conveying energy, since the industrial revolution. The following characteristics of steam make it so popular and useful to the industry: High specific heat and latent heat High heat transfer coefficient Easy to control and distribute Cheap and inert Steam is used for generating power and also used in process industries, such as, sugar, paper, fertilizer, refineries, petrochemicals, chemical, food, synthetic fibre and textiles.
In the process industries, the high pressure steam produced in the boiler, is first expanded in a steam turbine for generating power. The extraction or bleed from the turbine, which are generally at low pressure, are used for the process.
This method of producing power, by using the steam generated for process in the boiler, is called "Cogeneration. Select the pressure and temperature of the steam at which you want to find the enthalpy. Read the intersection of pressure and temperature for enthalpy Heat content in the steam First law of Thermodynamics It states that energy may be converted from one form to another, but it is never lost from the system.
Second Law of Thermodynamics In any conversion of energy from one form to another, some amount of energy will be dis sipated as heat. This principle is used in energy equipment efficiency calculations.
Law of Conservation of Matter. In any physical or chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed, but it may be changed from one form to another.
For example, if a sample of coal were burnt in an enclosed chamber, carbon in coal would end up as CO2 in the air inside the chamber; In fact, for every carbon atom there would be one carbon dioxide molecule in the combustion products each of which has one carbon atom.
So the carbon atoms would be conserved, and so would every other atom. Thus, no matter would be lost during this conversion of the coal into heat. All this cause confusion and hence the need for this chapter on units and conversions. Gauge pressure is defined relative to the prevailing atmospheric pressure Units of measure of pressure: Metric SI: Prefixes for units in the International System Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Bureau of Energy Efficiency.
Power Example pentagram Pg terawatt TW gigawatt GW megawatt MW kilogram kg hectoliter hl dekagram dag decimeter dm centimeter cm millimeter mm micrometer m nanosecond ns picofarad pf femtogram fg.
A fluorescent tube light consumes 40 W for the tube and 10 W for choke. If the lamp operates for 8 hours a day for days in a year, calculate the total energy cost per annum if the energy cost is Rs.
Why a cube of ice at 0oC is more effective in cooling a drink than the same quantity of water at 0oC? Definition, Energy audit- need, Types of energy audit, Energy management audit approach-understanding energy costs, Bench marking, Energy performance, Matching energy use to requirement, Maximizing system efficiencies, Optimizing the input energy requirements, Fuel and energy substitution, Energy audit instruments. The term energy management means many things to many people.
One definition of energy management is: Another comprehensive definition is "The strategy of adjusting and optimizing energy, using systems and procedures so as to reduce energy requirements per unit of output while holding constant or reducing total costs of producing the output from these systems" The objective of Energy Management is to achieve and maintain optimum energy procurement and utilisation, throughout the organization and:.
Energy Audit is the key to a systematic approach for decision-making in the area of energy management. It attempts to balance the total energy inputs with its use, and serves to identify all the energy streams in a facility. It quantifies energy usage according to its discrete functions.
Industrial energy audit is an effective tool in defining and pursuing comprehensive energy management programme. If one were to relate to the manageability of the cost or potential cost savings in each of the above components, energy would invariably emerge as a top ranker, and thus energy management function constitutes a strategic area for cost reduction. Energy Audit will help to understand more about the ways energy and fuel are used in any industry, and help in identifying the areas where waste can occur and where scope for improvement exists.
The Energy Audit would give a positive orientation to the energy cost reduction, preventive maintenance and quality control programmes which are vital for production and utility activities. Such an audit programme will help to keep focus on variations which occur in the energy costs, availability and reliability of supply of energy, decide on appropriate energy mix, identify energy conservation technologies, retrofit for energy conservation equipment etc. In general, Energy Audit is the translation of conservation ideas into realities, by lending technically feasible solutions with economic and other organizational considerations within a specified time frame.
The primary objective of Energy Audit is to determine ways to reduce energy consumption per unit of product output or to lower operating costs.
Energy Audit provides a " bench-mark" Reference point for managing energy in the organization and also provides the basis for planning a more effective use of energy throughout the organization.
Function and type of industry Depth to which final audit is needed, and Potential and magnitude of cost reduction desired Thus Energy Audit can be classified into the following two types.
This type of audit offers the most accurate estimate of energy savings and cost. It considers the interactive effects of all projects, accounts for the energy use of all major equipment, and includes detailed energy cost saving calculations and project cost. In a comprehensive audit, one of the key elements is the energy balance. This is based on an inventory of energy using systems, assumptions of current operating conditions and calculations of energy use. This estimated use is then compared to utility bill charges.
Detailed energy auditing is carried out in three phases: A comprehensive ten-step methodology for conduct of Energy Audit at field level is presented below. Phase I -Pre Audit Phase Activities A structured methodology to carry out an energy audit is necessary for efficient working. An initial study of the site should always be carried out, as the planning of the procedures necessary for an audit is most important. Discuss with the site's senior management the aims of the energy audit.
Obtain site drawings where available - building layout, steam distribution, compressed air distribution, electricity distribution etc. To finalise Energy Audit team. To decide whether any meters will have to be installed prior to the audit eg. Detailed studies to establish, and investigate, energy and material balances for specific plant departments or items of process equipment are carried out. Whenever possible, checks of plant operations are carried out over extended periods of time, at nights and at weekends as well as during normal daytime working hours, to ensure that nothing is overlooked.
The audit report will include a description of energy inputs and product outputs by major department or by major processing function, and will evaluate the efficiency of each step of the manufacturing process.
Means of improving these efficiencies will be listed, and at least a preliminary assessment of the cost of the improvements will be made to indicate the expected payback on any capital investment needed. The audit report should conclude with specific recommendations for detailed engineering studies and feasibility analyses, which must then be performed to justify the implementation of those conservation measures that require investments.
The information to be collected during the detailed audit includes: Energy consumption by type of energy, by department, by major items of process equip ment, by end-use 2. Material balance data raw materials, intermediate and final products, recycled materials, use of scrap or waste products, production of by-products for re-use in other industries, etc. Energy cost and tariff data 4. Process and material flow diagrams 5. Generation and distribution of site services eg. Sources of energy supply e.
Potential for fuel substitution, process modifications, and the use of co-generation systems combined heat and power generation.
Energy Management procedures and energy awareness training programs within the establishment. Existing baseline information and reports are useful to get consumption pattern, production cost and productivity levels in terms of product per raw material inputs. The audit team should collect the following baseline data: Here are some basic tips to avoid wasting time and effort: Draw process flow diagram and list process steps; identify waste streams and obvious energy wastage An overview of unit operations, important process steps, areas of material and energy use and sources of waste generation should be gathered and should be represented in a flowchart as shown in the figure below.
Existing drawings, records and shop floor walk through will help in making this flow chart. A flowchart of Penicillin-G manufacturing is given in the figure3. In the above process, the unit operations such as germinator, pre-fermentor, fermentor, and extraction are the major conservation potential areas identified.
Identification of Energy Conservation Opportunities Fuel substitution: Identifying the appropriate fuel for efficient energy conversion Energy generation: Energy distribution: Identifying Efficiency opportunities network such as transformers, cables, switchgears and power factor improvement in electrical systems and chilled water, cooling water, hot water, compressed air, Etc.
Energy usage by processes: This is where the major opportunity for improvement and many of them are hidden. Process analysis is useful tool for process integration measures. Technical and Economic feasibility The technical feasibility should address the following issues Technology availability, space, skilled manpower, reliability, service etc The impact of energy efficiency measure on safety, quality, production or process. The maintenance requirements and spares availability The Economic viability often becomes the key parameter for the management acceptance.
The economic analysis can be conducted by using a variety of methods. For low investment short duration measures, which have attractive economic viability, simplest of the methods, payback is usually sufficient. A sample worksheet for assessing economic feasibility is provided below:. Classification of Energy Conservation Measures Based on energy audit and analyses of the plant, a number of potential energy saving projects may be identified.
These may be classified into three categories:. Low cost - high return; 2. Medium cost - medium return; 3. High cost - high return Normally the low cost - high return projects receive priority. Other projects have to be analyzed, engineered and budgeted for implementation in a phased manner.
Projects relating to energy cascading and process changes almost always involve high costs coupled with high returns, and may require careful scrutiny before funds can be committed. These projects are generally complex and may require long lead times before they can be implemented.
Refer Table 3. A typical energy audit reporting contents and format are given below. The following format is applicable for most of the industries. However the format can be suitably modified for specific requirement applicable for a particular type of industry.
The following Worksheets refer Table 3. TABLE 3. Understanding energy cost is vital factor for awareness creation and saving calculation. In many industries sufficient meters may not be available to measure all the energy used. In such cases, invoices for fuels and electricity will be useful. The annual company balance sheet is the other sources where fuel cost and power are given with production related information. Energy invoices can be used for the following purposes: When electricity is downloadd on the basis of maximum demand tariff They can suggest where savings are most likely to be made.
In later years invoices can be used to quantify the energy and cost savings made through energy conservation measures Fuel Costs A wide variety of fuels are available for thermal energy supply. Few are listed below: Understanding fuel cost is fairly simple and it is downloadd in Tons or Kiloliters. Availability, cost and quality are the main Figure 3. The following factors should be taken into account during procurement of fuels for energy efficiency and economics.
Price at source, transport charge, type of transport Quality of fuel contaminations, moisture etc Energy content calorific value Power Costs Electricity price in India not only varies from State to State, but also city to city and consumer to consumer though it does the same work everywhere. Many factors are involved in deciding final cost of downloadd electricity such as: Maximum demand charges, kVA i. How fast the electricity is used? Energy Charges, kWh i. When electricity is utilized?
Power factor Charge, P. Unfortunately the different forms of energy are sold in different units e. To allow comparison of energy quantities these must be converted to a common unit of energy such as kWh, Giga joules, kCals etc. Trend analysis of energy consumption, cost, relevant production features, specific energy consumption, help to understand effects of capacity utilization on energy use efficiency and costs on a broader scale.
External benchmarking relates to inter-unit comparison across a group of similar units. However, it would be important to ascertain similarities, as otherwise findings can be grossly. Few comparative factors, which need to be looked into while benchmarking externally are: Scale of operation Vintage of technology Raw material specifications and quality Product specifications and quality Benchmarking energy performance permits Quantification of fixed and variable energy consumption trends vis--vis production levels Comparison of the industry energy performance with respect to various production levels capacity utilization Identification of best practices based on the external benchmarking data Scope and margin available for energy consumption and cost reduction Basis for monitoring and target setting exercises.
The benchmark parameters can be: Gross production related e. While such benchmarks are referred to, related crucial process parameters need mentioning for meaningful comparison among peers.
For instance, in the above case: For a cement plant - type of cement, blaine number fineness i. For a textile unit - average count, type of yarn i. For a boiler plant - fuel quality, type, steam pressure, temperature, flow, are useful com parators alongside thermal efficiency and more importantly, whether thermal efficiency is on gross calorific value basis or net calorific value basis or whether the computation is by direct method or indirect heat loss method, may mean a lot in benchmarking exer cise for meaningful comparison.
Compressed air specific power consumption - is to be compared at similar inlet air tem perature and pressure of generation. Plant Energy Performance Plant energy performance PEP is the measure of whether a plant is now using more or less energy to manufacture its products than it did in the past: It compares the change in energy consumption from one year to the other considering production output.
Plant energy performance monitoring compares plant energy use at a reference year with the subsequent years to determine the improvement that has been made. However, a plant production output may vary from year to year and the output has a significant bearing on plant energy use.
For a meaningful comparison, it is necessary to determine the energy that would have been required to produce this year production output, if the plant had operated in the same way as it did during the reference year.
This calculated value can then be compared with the actual value to determine the improvement or deterioration that has taken place since the reference year.