The secret garden by frances hodgson burnett pdf


 

Project Gutenberg · 59, free ebooks · 55 by Frances Hodgson Burnett. The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett. No cover available. Download. Project Gutenberg · 59, free ebooks · 55 by Frances Hodgson Burnett. The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett. Book Cover. THE SECRET GARDEN. BY FRANCES HODGSON BURNETT. CHAPTER I. THERE IS NO ONE LEFT. When Mary Lennox was sent to Misselthwaite Manor.

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The Secret Garden By Frances Hodgson Burnett Pdf

by Frances Hodgson Burnett . Mary hoped that she might find the door to the locked garden. . Mary worked with her hands each day in the secret garden. The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett This book is available for free download in a number of formats - including epub, pdf, azw, mobi and more. format, size, downloads, link / send to. PDF (eng), MB, , download. ePub (eng), MB, , download. Mobipocket/Kindle (eng), MB,

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Anne Stiles. But this divine being can also be terribly damaged. All rights reserved. Bantam, , pp. Whitfield, Healing the Child Within: Health Communications, , , p. In therapeutic contexts, the existence of the inner child and its psychological significance are seldom questioned; in popular culture, however, the inner child has been frequently ridiculed. Self-help writers provide even less context, preferring to represent the inner child as timeless. Physician Charles Whit- field, whose Healing the Child Within sold over one million copies, offers a characteristically imprecise history: Addison-Wesley, , p. Dell, , n.

Something of her contrariness came back to her as she paced the walk and looked over it at the tree-tops inside. It seemed so silly, she said to herself, to be near it and not be able to get in. She took the key in her pocket when she went back to the house, and she made up her mind that she would always carry it with her when she went out, so that if she ever should find the hidden door she would be ready.

Medlock had allowed Martha to sleep all night at the cottage, but she was back at her work in the morning with cheeks redder than ever and in the best of spirits. Her mother had been glad to see her and they had got the baking and washing all out of the way.

She had even made each of the children a doughcake with a bit of brown sugar in it. Our Dickon he said our cottage was good enough for a king. I dare say they would like to hear about riding on elephants and camels, and about the officers going to hunt tigers.

It would be same as a wild beast show like we heard they had in York once. Did Dickon and your mother like to hear you talk about me? Craven got no governess for her, nor no nurse? How could a cottage full of fourteen hungry people give any one a present!

How much are they? It was a strong, slender rope with a striped red and blue handle at each end, but Mary Lennox had never seen a skipping-rope before.

She gazed at it with a mystified expression. But Martha did not even see them. Do you think I could ever skip like that?

She was not very clever at it, but she liked it so much that she did not want to stop. She opened the door to go out, and then suddenly thought of something and turned back rather slowly. It was your two-pence really. Thank you. Martha gave her hand a clumsy little shake, as if she was not accustomed to this sort of thing either.

Then she laughed. Yorkshire people seemed strange, and Martha was always rather a puzzle to her. At first she had disliked her very much, but now she did not. The skipping-rope was a wonderful thing. This bafled Vivian and his wife, who were active members of the faith Gerzina Vivian wrote in his biography of his mother, "For some reason, despite her sympathy with Christian Science, and her real need of healing, she was not able to accept it wholly, and, though from time to time she turned to it for help, she never absolutely enrolled herself as a Scientist" There are several reasons for Burnett's ambivalence.

For instance, she had dificulty convincing herself of Eddy's claim that contagious disease was "engendered solely by human theories" rather than nox- ious germs Eddy Burnett also struggled to grasp the Christian Science belief that matter, evil, and suffering are unreal.

This was particularly dificult during the last decade of her life when she suf- fered from undiagnosed colon cancer. But despite Burnett's reservations about Christian Science, the religion provided comfort during her episodes of depression. Christian Science also helped Burnett cope with the untimely death of her old- est son Lionel in As Burnett explained to Vivian, "While I could not call myself a Christian Scientist, I believe in its principle because it is the exposition of the pure Christ-spirit applied to the needs of today" qtd.

“The Secret Garden”

It is not surprising that Burnett would feel attracted to Chris- tian Science even if she never oficially joined. By , there were 85, self-identiied Christian Scientists in America. At least as many more Americans were afiliated with related movements such as New Thought Parker 8. Christian Science was even beginning to make its mark in England where Burnett sometimes resided. Founder Mary Baker Eddy allegedly discovered this truth when she spontaneously recovered from a severe injury in From its beginnings, Christian Science was a deeply antisci- entiic movement that eschewed mainstream medicine and denied the existence of material reality, especially the body and its ills.

The brain was likewise unreal, Eddy assured her followers, since intel- ligence cannot dwell in material entities: "The brain can give no idea of God's man. Matter is not the organ of ininite Mind" By denying the brain as the organ of mind, Eddy left no room for neurological or psychological explanations for human behavior; she attributed thoughts and emotions to divine "Mind" or "Spirit" alone.

Nevertheless, Eddy's writings are permeated by pseudoscientiic lan- guage. She frequently referred to her belief system as "the Science" and her followers as "Scientists. The movement appealed to Christians of various denomina- tions, many of whom perceived modern science as antagonistic to their beliefs. It also won converts among chronic invalids by promis- ing renewed health through right thinking. Eddy and her followers believed in the near godlike power of human thought to change the universe; positive thinking could create a better reality, while nega- tive thoughts could damage health and human relationships.

Chris- tian Scientists also believed in thought transference—the idea that people unconsciously "picked up" on the thoughts of others Satter 3. Burnett was typical of the movement in her belief that "constant mental communication between minds" could occur even between persons who had never met and lived far apart "Social Sets of Other Cities" Women were drawn to the faith's charismatic female leader and her vision of an androgy- nous Father-Mother God.

Many women built careers as professional Christian Science healers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, establishing their so-called mental healing services as an alternative to mainstream medicine. A typical Christian Science heal- ing consisted of a healer sitting quietly with a patient and meditating on uplifting statements, including repeated denials of the reality of sickness Satter These meditations could be uttered aloud or silently, in person or at a distance.

In the latter case, telepathy would ensure that thoughts reached their intended target. Mental healing Christian Science versus the Rest Cure in The Secret Garden was hailed as a revelation by many nineteenth-century women, particularly neurasthenics who disliked mainstream treatments for nervous illness In fact, Eddy's Science and Health contains an apparent denunciation of the rest cure that was probably aimed at Mitchell see epigraph.

Given her own negative experiences with mainstream medicine, it makes sense that Burnett would embrace Christian Science and the offshoot movement known as New Thought, which eventually became more popular than Christian Science itself.

New Thought teaches that thoughts have the power to shape reality and that people can improve their lives by changing negative thought patterns.

The faith spawned such now-familiar ideas as the inner child, daily af- irmations, and the power of positive thinking. Today, New Thought rhetoric permeates self-help literature such as The Secret , which introduced the power of positive thinking to a new generation and sold millions of copies. New Thought also survives in popular children's literature written around , includ- ing not only The Secret Garden but also The Little Engine that Could , which remains a best-selling title to this day Harrington Psychologists speculate that New Thought remains popular in various forms because positive thinking can trigger the placebo effect Many New Thought leaders were Eddy's former students who broke from her to establish their own healing practices.

They tended to be more lexible about the application of Christian Science principles. For instance, while Eddy acknowledged only the Bible and Science and Health as sources of truth, New Thought adherents drew on an amalgam of world religions and esoteric traditions such as Theosophy, Rosicrucianism, Tran- scendentalism, and Swedenborgianism Harrington Adherents of New Thought were also more willing to cooperate with orthodox medical practitioners, and were somewhat less hostile toward scien- tiic inquiry, including neurological research.

For instance, some New Thought authors admitted the existence of the brain and speculated that "unconscious cerebration" also known as relex action of the brain could bring about good or ill health, or play a role in mental te- lepathy. Echoing Science and Health, New Thought author Annie Call criticized the rest cure as a self-indulgent practice that encouraged unhealthy preoccupation with the body Parker Stiles According to historian Beryl Satter, it is more accurate to think of Christian Science as a branch of New Thought than the other way around.

Both philosophies drew on the thinking of New England homeopath Phineas Parkhurst Quimby and promoted the power of positive thinking. Satter explains, "Today Mary Baker Eddy is seen by non-Christian Scientists as the most successful representative of an obscure late-nineteenth-century Mind Cure or New Thought religious milieu" 5. I adopt this perspective in the remainder of this essay, meaning that I consider Christian Science as a branch of New Thought and Eddy's Science and Health as a prominent New Thought text.

Although Eddy worked tirelessly to separate her teachings from those of other New Thought writers such as Emma Curtis Hopkins, Warren Felt Evans, and Ralph Waldo Trine, her protests often drew attention to the marked similarities between her works and those of her rivals. One important difference between New Thought and Eddy's religion, however, was that New Thought was more lexible in evolv- ing to suit the times.

While Christian Science remained a female- centered religion focused on health, New Thought changed its tone signiicantly around New Thought literature of the s and s addressed predominantly female audiences and heralded the arrival of a "woman's era" dominated by love, spirituality, and ma- ternal self-sacriice Satter By contrast, early twentieth-century New Thought literature began to address male audiences, advocat- ing positive thinking as the key to inancial success.

To some extent, Burnett's iction relects these changes. For instance, the protagonist of The Dawn of a To-morrow is a neurasthenic businessman rather than a sick woman.

In The Secret Garden, meanwhile, a male invalid abandons his sickbed to embrace scientiic discovery and muscular Christianity. But despite their central male characters, both novels retain an old-fashioned focus on neurasthenia and female healers. This emphasis suggests that, like many women who had embraced New Thought in the s and s, Burnett remained invested in millennial hopes for a coming "woman's era" Satter When Burnett was interviewed by the New York Times in , two years after the publication of The Secret Garden, she acknowl- edged the inluence of Christian Science and New Thought but denied that any single philosophy provided the key to her iction or her life.

Yet I am all of these things" "Mrs. Burnett" Burnett's eclectic approach to religion was typical of New Thought followers. As Anne Harrington observes, New Thought "drew variously and generously on a great many esoteric, pantheistic, and occult traditions of the Christian Science versus the Rest Cure in The Secret Garden time," including Theosophy, which in turn borrowed from Eastern religions While Burnett equivocated about her faith, her readers cer- tainly recognized New Thought messages in her novels.

Meanwhile, The Secret Garden was "generally credited with being a Christian Sci- ence book" when it was irst published, according to Vivian Burnett Modern readers must keep in mind the New Thought context of Burnett's works in order to comprehend her novels' broader themes.

For instance, Burnett's attitudes toward gender are impossible to understand without reference to New Thought and the little-known genre of New Thought iction. The shift from a female to a male protagonist in the second half of The Secret Garden is not merely evidence of Burnett's conservative sexual ideologies, as some critics have alleged.

In the remainder of this essay, I read The Dawn of a To-morrow and The Secret Garden as New Thought novels, even though both contain features of other genres as well such as the romance, the fairy tale, and the gothic novel.

These novels typically feature a female protagonist using New Thought to come to terms with her unhappy marriage, economic vulnerability, and oppressive household responsibilities, though there were numerous variations on this basic plot.

Such novels often con- clude with the reform of a previously unrepentant male character. Disabled male characters take on special status within this genre, since they were believed to combine the strength and dominance of a man with the moral purity of a woman. New Thought evolved in part to address women's dissatisfaction with mainstream therapies for ner- vous ailments, including Mitchell's rest cure.

Moreover, many leading New Thought practitioners had initially turned to the "mind cure" to overcome anxiety or depression Parker x. Although Burnett its the proile of these New Thought leaders, her iction was vastly more successful in reaching mainstream readers.

Today, The Secret Garden still teaches impressionable children about the power of thought to change circumstances.

It was made into a successful play and later, a silent ilm starring Mary Pickford. The novel's protagonist, Sir Oliver Holt, is a wealthy English business- man who becomes seriously depressed and contemplates suicide.

He is saved from this drastic step by a cheerful band of beggars and thieves, including a twelve-year-old urchin named Glad. Glad and her friends teach Holt that God is omnipresent and death does not exist. The novel and its dramatic adaptations convinced some readers that Burnett was a Christian Scientist. Burnett responded, "Thank good- ness, I am not a scientist of any kind" Burnett, "Mrs.

But she afirmed that New Thought played a role in her novel. The work was also inluenced by Burnett's own struggles with depression following her two failed marriages Gerzina — In , Beard introduced the diagnosis of neurasthenia, arguing that symptoms as various as depression, fatigue, anxiety, headaches, and insomnia could be caused by a deiciency or "lack of nerve force" 5.

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He compared the body of a nervous patient to an insuficiently powerful electric battery Beard went on to boast that neurasthenia was not merely an illness, but a sign of American cultural superiority. He connected overwork with success in commerce and intellectual achievement.

Soon after, Mitchell joined forces with Beard to popularize neurasthenia as a typically American disease that disproportionately aflicted upper-class men.

In writings such as Wear and Tear: or, Hints for the Overworked, Mitchell focused on the exhausted male brain worker of the middle and upper classes rather than the nervous women he has since become famous for treating. These anxious men felt worn down by "late hours of work, irregular meals bolted in haste away from home, the want of holidays and of pursuits outside of business" For such men, the single-minded pursuit of success was key to their prosperity, yet damaging to their health.

Middle-aged men were at particularly high risk, Mitchell thought. In Wear and Tear, he aptly described what we might call a midlife crisis: Is it any wonder if asylums for the insane gape for such men? There comes to them at last a season of business embarrassment; or, when they get to be ifty or there- abouts, the brain begins to feel the strain, and just as they are thinking, 'Now we will stop and enjoy ourselves,' the Christian Science versus the Rest Cure in The Secret Garden brain, which, slave-like, never murmurs until it breaks out into open insurrection, suddenly refuses to work, and the mischief is done.

Sir Oliver Holt is a famous businessman whose name "represented the greatest wealth and power in the world of inance and schemes of business" Nonetheless, Holt succumbs at midlife to a crushing depression that no medical intervention can relieve.

He knows that "physicians would have given a name to his mental and physical condition. He had heard these names often—applied to men the strain of whose lives had been like the strain of his own, and had left them as it had left him—jaded, joyless, breaking things" 7. While Burnett never uses the word "neurasthenia" to describe Holt's illness, she relies on the language of wear and tear, stress, strain, and breakdown that permeates Beard's and Mitchell's writing on this condition.

But Holt has gotten no relief from rest cures, West cures, or other standard remedies, as he explains "Anything else must be better than this—the thing for which there was a scientiic name but no healing.

He had taken all the drugs, he had obeyed all the medical orders, and here he was after that last hell of a night— dressing himself in a back bedroom of a cheap lodging-house to go out and download a pistol" While doctors like Beard and Mitchell could provide a name neurasthenia and scientiic explanation for Holt's condition, they offer no effective remedy for this unfortunate sufferer.

Where the medical community fails Holt, New Thought suc- ceeds in alleviating his depression. After downloading a pistol in order to shoot himself, Holt gets lost in the London fog and meets Glad, who introduces him to the drunks, prostitutes, and thieves living in a tene- ment called Apple-Blossom Court.

In this unlikely environment, Holt irst encounters the doctrines of New Thought. A former music hall dancer, Miss Jinny Montaubyn, explains to Holt that there is no death and that God is always accessible to believers. Struck by Miss Montaubyn's conviction, Holt decides not to commit suicide. Instead, he gives money to his new friends in Apple-Blossom Court, who use the cash to improve their squalid surroundings.

If Holt's conversion experience sounds unlikely to us, it must have been more convincing or at least more familiar to early twentieth-century readers steeped in New Thought. Miss Montaubyn Stiles speaks in familiar New Thought platitudes that are scarcely disguised by her cockney dialect. Her belief in the power of right thinking and the nonexistence of death come straight from Eddy's Science and Health, while her literal interpretation of Mark , "whatsoever things ye desire, when ye pray, believe that you receive, and ye shall receive," echoes New Thought leader Emma Curtis Hopkins's reading of this verse Satter Even Miss Montaubyn's economic self-suficiency stems from her positive thinking, which keeps her supplied with food while her neighbors starve.

While Jinny Montaubyn seems like a familiar igure from New Thought literature, The Dawn of a To-morrow introduces some new elements into the formulaic genre. By setting her story in a London slum and making her protagonist a wealthy man, Burnett distanced New Thought from its American, female, middle-class roots, per- haps in order to show the religion's universality.

“The Secret Garden” - Classic Books - nbafinals.info

Her choice of a male protagonist, meanwhile, not only hearkens back to Mitchell's neurasthenic businessmen of the s, but also looks forward to expanded audiences for New Thought literature.

Titans of industry like Andrew Carnegie and Henry Ford numbered among the many prominent men who embraced this faith in the irst decades of the twentieth century. While Sir Oliver Holt's wealth invites comparison with Carnegie, success in commerce is not enough for him. Two female characters, Glad and Jinny Montaubyn, must show him the way to achieve health and happiness.

In these respects, Holt's story deviates from twentieth-century New Thought literature on inancial success and more closely resembles earlier New Thought narratives in which the sick and despondent turn to female healers. In this strain of New Thought, converts embraced traditionally feminine virtues such as love, family, and maternal self-sacriice.

Holt's experiences follow the latter model. For instance, Holt learns the pleasures of selless giving when he sees what good his wealth could do in Apple-Blossom Court. In giving away his money, Holt follows the dictates of Eddy, who taught her followers to "dissi- pate. Holt even acquires a surrogate family at the novel's conclusion by taking in a prostitute and aban- doned baby. He ends the novel happier and more in tune with his feminine side, recognizing that inancial success alone cannot ensure personal satisfaction.

He acknowledges that male doctors can explain his symptoms scientiically but cannot help him recover. It is up to female-centered religions like New Thought to bring about a cure. Despite her businessman protagonist, then, Burnett remains dedicated to the woman- and health-centered variety of New Thought popular in the late nineteenth century.

This doubling appears again in The Secret Garden, when the child-heroine Mary Lennox and the loving mother-igure Susan Sowerby together nurse the novel's invalid males back to health. In each novel, Burnett pairs an older woman with a precocious female child-healer. While the adult female healer is a standard trope of New Thought literature, the inspired girl-child seems new to the genre.

Burnett's child healers call to mind the discourse of the inner child that emerged in New Thought, beginning with Eddy and con- tinuing with Hopkins, the leading New Thought teacher of the s and s.

Eddy viewed children metaphorically as "[t]he spiritual thoughts and representatives of Life, Truth, and Love" Expand- ing on Eddy's teachings, Hopkins encouraged her mostly female fol- lowers to meditate and practice daily afirmations in order to fortify the divine within themselves, which she termed the "God-Self" or "Man Child. Hopkins identiied this child as a masculine, dominant inner self within the passive, feminine individual.

Drawing on this inner Man Child would give women godlike powers, Hopkins wrote. The New Thought discourse of the inner child drew in turn on earlier sources, including Wordsworthian conceptions of the divine child and mid-Victorian male fantasies about female children. If nineteenth-century women could so easily imagine an opposite-sex, child version of themselves, perhaps this is because of a parallel tradi- tion in which Victorian men saw themselves in young girls.

Catherine Robson has described how mid-Victorian male writers including John Ruskin, Charles Dickens, and Lewis Carroll saw girls as representatives of "the true essence of childhood" 3.

Relationships with girls helped such men reconnect with their lost childhood selves. This makes sense because middle- and upper-class Victorian men spent their earliest years in the feminized realm of the nursery, in company with their sisters, before heading off to male-dominated public schools.

They looked back on their early childhoods as an Edenic lost realm and idealized the girls they associated with this time.

But in Robson's model, middle- and upper-class men idolize young girls of their own social station. Glad, a beggar who alludes to her likely Stiles future as a prostitute, cannot fully embody the innocence and purity typical of this pattern.

Why, then, did Burnett position Glad as a foil for Holt? The answer lies in his identity as neurasthenic, for neurasthenia was emphatically a disease of the middle and upper classes, speciically, brain workers who succumbed to the pressures of intellectual labor. In Wear and Tear, Mitchell wrote, "I am talking chiely of the crowded portions of our country, of our great towns, and especially of their upper classes.

Mitchell's deinition of the neurasthenic virtually excluded lower-class patients, particularly manual laborers. Doctors tended to attribute the nervous complaints of the poor to other causes, such as hard work, childbearing, or hysteria Gijswijt-Hofstra 8. By virtue of her origins, then, Glad would be considered practically immune to neurasthenia. She is able to help Holt precisely because she is so removed from his world of "brain-work.

In The Secret Garden, Burnett continues the New Thought em- phasis on the inner child by introducing a cast of child characters. But not all of them possess uncanny wisdom. The novel's protagonist, ten-year-old Mary Lennox, is a spoiled orphan who hails from India. The working-class in- fresh air one is "dull, drowsy, apathetic, and peevish, if dividuals in the novel, already attached to the earth, can not decidedly ill" In this perspective, the stock En- preach a gospel of pantheistic interconnection to Mary and glish view of the subaltern as lazy becomes attributable help her to assume a new manner of living, playing, and not only to an inherent racial characteristic but also to cli- even speaking.

In a startling nationalistic trope, Mary's mate. In her initial conversation with the servant phy, climate, and race. Moving from England to India and girl, for example, Mary speaks "haughtily," "disdainfully," back again, these sentences compare the wholesome na- demandingly, "in her imperious little Indian way," and in ture of English life with the unhealthy aspects of Indian response to Martha's Yorkshire speech says, "I don't un- life.

Air in England, so it seems, is always pure, regardless derstand your language" By the end of the text, of how much coal soot is in it, in contrast to the warm and Mary takes particular pride in her ability to use "a bit o' dangerous air of other climes. Thus in Jane Eyre the Yorkshire" Yorkshire functions as a pre-industrial, cool wind becomes a symbol of both Europe and reason, pastoral space, removed in time from modernity, and in while the "sulphur-steams" of places like the West Indies distance from the metropolis.

The India of Burnett's text ness not found in life in India and more particularly with is a place of obedient, submissive servants, who cannot a certain folk wisdom and the exercise of the body.

Dickon teach Mary how to behave properly and who demonstrate and Martha's mother, Mrs. Sowerby, a firm believer in through their own behavior that they deserve to be ruled.

It is a place where, much like John Stuart Mill's China, Dickon, the child most closely associated with nature, in- custom has banished progress. It is a place without skip- troduces the calisthenics that Mary and Colin perform in ping ropes or spring, a place where Mary can only pre- the garden At the rabbit, or a squirrel, or even a beetle, an' I don't know it" beginning of the novel, Mary is yellow "because she had , , Most important, gardening itself is depicted been born in India and had always been ill" 9.

Burnett as a healthy interest and exercise that brings the classes perpetuates contemporary stereotypes when she depicts together. Dickon, after all, is the bearer of the gardening Mary as if her birth in India has somehow infected her seeds and tools. While this picture would seem to idealize with the same color skin as its natives.

During her first class relationships, beneath it lies another, in which the days in England, Mary is "sallow" although with good owner of the land Mr. Or as the servant girl, Martha, tells her later in the text, Many Victorian writers believed that a love of land- '"Th' air from th' moor has done thee good already Tha'rt not nigh so yeller and tha'rt not nigh so scrawny" Sedding proclaims that the garden is a sign of the innate Or as the narrator herself describes Mary as she human desire for beauty: Mary has been trans- whether it adorn castle, manor-house, villa, planted to a clime more conducive to growth, a soil that road-side cottage or signalman's box at the rail- allows her to put down roots.

As one nineteenth-century way siding, or Japanese or British tea-garden, writer claims, "There is no country that offers the like ad- or Babylonian terrace or Platonic grove at Ath- vantages to horticulture.

The Victorian Secret Garden at Beauty's bidding. Even the Puritan, for all people supervise while others dig up the earth "Exercise," his gloomy creed and bleak undecorated life, Oxford English Dictionary.

This word, which is so crucial is Romanticist here. But, as he and others were quick to indicate, the British revival Foucault has elaborated upon the wide range seemed to have a special relationship with nature tamed. We exercise our bodies when we ride our bicycles, tional harmony: The piano piece we play and the composition we write are both As long as the British nobleman continues to exercises.

No doubt, Mary is a terest pervades every class of society, so long happier little girl at the end of the book than she was at the shall we cling to the hope that our country is beginning, when she was lonely and discontented. As in destined to outlive all her difficulties and dan- the case of Sedding's garden, however, the beauty and com- gers.

Mary is told near the end that she will be "like a The interest in cultivation becomes a floral bulwark blush rose" when she grows up, a compliment that she en- against the possibility of revolt, a subject that arises more joys because "remembering her pleasure in looking at the directly in a later sentence, and whose presence is not un- Mem Sahib [her mother] in the past she was glad to hear expected given that the article appeared in the same year that she might some day look like her" Mary, there- as the second delivery of the Chartist petition: The mention of gardens may seem ludicrous in this their desires.

The issue of sharing, a perennial topic in child- political context, but it is proof of an overwhelming desire rearing, gauges Mary's progress. At the beginning, she is to believe that "all's right with the world. When she finally finds her a potato and a cabbage and an onion for the pot within: The garden is being read as the sign of a she should enjoy herself always" Although she allows class content with its lot and disinclined to overthrow an Dickon to enter this territory, his close connection to nature elite that is just as connected to the earth.

Eventually, she admits Colin, who is Exercise in one of its less frequently encountered of the proper class and age, as her future mate. In the beginning, Mary's cultivation of the gar- behavior, Mary screams back at him.

The autoeroticism of nor have said such things, but it just happened that the certain early passages makes this emphasis on the self clear, shock of hearing them was the best possible thing for this as in the following scene: Mary's display of bad temper is entranc- He [Dickon] threw himself upon his knees ing; it allows readers to overlook the transfer of the book's and Mary went down beside him. They had central interest to Colin. Mary bent Colin, although he becomes better humored, seems to as- her face down and kissed and kissed them.

Colin's imperious behavior is a constant. He said when she lifted her head. It makes me ill to be angry" Mary has no trouble identifying Colin's manner: He had rubies and emeralds and sexuality. Everybody had to do everything that he kisses his own mother in the same way.

I think they would have been provide space for a chaste interpretation of the scene and killed if they hadn't" Indeed, as a boy and the heir remind us of Mary's motherlessness. When Mary finally to an estate, Colin is a sort of rajah-in-training.

He becomes the leader of a group that consists of himself, Mary, Dickon, and occasionally the old gardener. Colin leads this group "like a sort of priest" in a series of rituals He takes great delight in giving lectures to the oth- ers, "because when I grow up and make great scientific discoveries I shall be obliged to lecture about them and so this is practice" At bottom, his interest in the magic of nature is utilitarian; his desire is to control rather than to appreciate nature: On his first visit to the secret garden, he plants a rose as if he is planting a national flag: Mary's cultivation, we might say, springs from a cer- tain amount of self-interest.

In the world in which she lives, the process she undergoes will make her marriageable, Mary and Dickon cultivating the garden from The Secret Garden by and a fit wife, as well as providing for her own physical Frances Hodgson Burnett, illus.

Tasha Tudor safety. A disturbing small tale that makes its way into the text indicates what can happen if a girl does not learn her The cultivation of Colin, which lies at the center of lessons. Jem Fettleworth's wife, the old gardener tells the the text, just as Mary's discovery of the invalid boy hap- children, used to call her husband a drunken brute.

As a pens halfway through the book, occurs through a precari- result, "he gave her a good hidin' an' went to th' Blue Lion ous balance. The novel's focus is about to shift from Mary an' got as drunk as a lord.

Initially, Mary's bad humor is needed to rouse "Well.. She must remain a bad girl her. If she'd used the right Magic and had said something long enough to tame the bad boy. When Colin has hys- net" Say the wrong thing and be beaten is the mes- terics and the rest of the household cannot cope with his sage.

Say the right thing and get a bonnet. The Victorian Secret Garden 11 should be used for comfort, not truth-telling, not repri- set the elephants in order and shut the door of mands. Colin comes bursting through the Mary manages these elephants just as she does the ele- door of the womb-like space, reborn in health and happi- ments of her tales, using them to produce personal wealth, ness, and into the arms of his father.

Mary and Dickon as the British used the colonies to produce national wealth. While the story of the secret garden had Ironically, these elephants are made from the very item been Mary's to tell before, now it becomes Colin's.

Mary for which their models would have been killed. Mary is figured in the room designed for leisure, the sitting room. If the first sen- the elephants are like animals in a zoo. The Zoological Garden Martha exclaims in response that "It would set'em clean off their heads It would be same as a wild beast The Secret Garden's depiction of "abroad" makes it a show like we heard they had in York once" The impure clime The wild beast show and its more important and of India breeds a slavish, stagnant people who deserve to larger relative, the zoological garden, play an important be ruled, and both the land and people serve in this novel role in the story of empire.

Mary Lennox, yellow and sick both explore the connection between imperialism in India, ripens into health and maturity in England. More and public zoological gardens, which were, like public interesting, however, is the way in which India is put on botanical gardens, truly a production of the nineteenth- display, used as an exotic resource for the imagination of century. As Ritvo notes, the zoo as conceived in its highest both the author and young Mary Lennox herself. It allowed even the uneducated to participate the teller of stories.

Mary is revered both by the future vicariously in England's domination over other areas of patriarch, Colin, and the servant Martha, for her knowl- the globe Specific animals were used to lure visi- edge and descriptions of India, for her ability to put the tors, but, as Ritvo comments, "the animals selected for exotic on display, to control it and utter it.

The symbolic s tar dorn In one room, which looked like a lady's sitting- As Schama writes in his discussion of the London room, the hangings were all embroidered vel- Zoo, which appears beneath the subtitle "Arcadia under vet, and in a cabinet were about a hundred little Glass," the institution "wrapped exoticism in cozy domes- elephants made of ivory.

They were of differ- ticity" For example, animals were housed in build- ent sizes, and some had their mahouts or ings resembling English cottages The whole effect palanquins on their backs. Mary had seen the animals' cages She opened the door of the cabinet cabinet in a lady's sitting room holding Lilliputian el- and stood on a footstool and played with these ephants. Mary can play with them for as long as she wants, for quite a long time.

In the meantime, she can tell stories about door scenery neatly writ in man's small hand. It is Nature's rustic lan- was instinctual, also makes the following proclamation: This passage connects women, gardens, and language, moving from literal to In this formulation, the raw materials of a female nature metaphorical flowers, playing with the supposedly female become the finished product of the garden: In the formation The association of women with flowers of speech is of the proper female character, young girls train to be in a crystallized in the nineteenth century through a pervasive drama for which others have written the script.

For Mary language of sentiment, the language of flowers, in which Lennox, who begins her journey of development by tres- flowers became fixed elements, representing eternal veri- passing and who uses language to tell stories that capti- ties, in a linguistic code. For example, "the pronoun I, or me, is expressed by inclining the flower to the left, and the pro- NOTES noun thou, or thee, by sloping it to the right, but when rep- resented by drawings on paper, these positions should be reversed, as the flower should lean to the heart of the per- 1.

The Secret Garden was published in ; its roots, however, son whom it is to signify"; or, "if a flower presented up- are firmly in the nineteenth century, in the books and gardens of right expresses a particular sentiment, when reversed it Burnett's childhood, and in the rose garden of her English country has a contrary meaning" Motherhood in The Secret Garden" Lydgate 3. For general information on Victorians and flower gardens, see later readers of The Secret Garden may have "read" Mrs.

Men and Women of the English esty," and "sweetness. Other works include Jennifer If flowers are linguistic elements, gardens themselves Davies, The Victorian Flower Garden ; Joan Morgan and could be read as whole texts.

The Pleasures as a "pastoral romance" and old gardens as historical ro- and Plenty of the Victorian Garden ; Nicolette Scourse, The mances that "open out vistas for one's imagination and Victorians and their Flowers For contemporary reviews of gardening literature and discussions of Victorian gardening see drop hints of romance that would make thrilling reading "The Flower Garden," Quarterly Review and "The English in many volumes," but which shall never reach Mudie's" Flower Garden," Quarterly Review The Gardeners'Chronicle, 64, Furthermore, which began publication in , was the most important gardening journal of the nineteenth-century and contains a A garden is man's transcript of the woodland wealth of information on the subject.

On Victorian gardening world: The Victorian Secret Garden 13 Literature On Edwardian gardening, see David Ottewill, enclose" as the translation of "aneare.

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